Hello, and welcome back to As It Is from VOA Learning English.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Today on the program, we go to a refugee camp in Uganda. The United Nations has sent a traveling court there to urge victims of rape and violence at home to seek justice…
“So one of the main reasons for this court is to try and encourage people to report more, so that we can find out all of the cases within the community…”
But first, our South Africa correspondent Anita Powell looks at what is causing widespread and increasing cases of rape in Africa…
不过首先，我们的南非通讯员 Anita Powell 调研了为什么非洲的强奸案件普遍存在且不断增多。
“The nation was recently shocked by an especially brutal rape and murder of a teenager in the Western Cape.”
Activists: Rape in Africa Driven by Inequality and Weak Prosecution
Rape is considered an epidemic in Africa. That is true even in countries with progressive legal systems like South Africa. VOA’s correspondent in Johannesburg Anita Powell looks at the numbers and examines some of the cultural roots and legal problems facing people trying to help stop rape in Africa.
强奸在非洲就像传染病一样，即便在南非这样司法系统进步的国家也是如此。VOA驻约翰内斯堡联络员 Anita Powell 研究了这些数字，并调查了非洲人阻止强奸发生时面临的部分文化根源和司法问题。
South African police say 64,000 rapes were reported in the country last year. This happened in a nation that is often called “the rape capital of the world.”
南非警方称，去年全国报道了 6.4 万起强奸案。该国家常被称作“世界强奸之都”。
But activists say the problem with this number is that it is probably wrong. And it is not just wrong by a small amount -- the activists say it may be wrong by a large amount.
In early November, a top South African organization questioned the police department’s math. The group said the police used old, lower population numbers in producing its yearly crime report. They say the result makes it appear that there is more improvement in the number of crimes than has actually taken place.
And there is more cause for concern. A recent study by the Medical Research Council found that only one in 25 women reports rape in Gauteng, the province with the largest population.
引发担心还有其他原因。医学研究委员会最近的一项研究发现，人口最多的豪登省仅有 1/25 的女性举报自己遭遇的强奸。
Gender rights activist Shireen Motara says this lack of reporting is the first big problem. Women in South Africa often do not report rape because of the reaction they get. That is true even though the nation’s laws are among the most progressive in the world.
性别权利活动人士 Shireen Motara 说，检举不力是首要问题。南非女性很少揭发强奸，因为她们得不到回应。虽然该国法律在世界上也算最先进的，情况依然如此。
Ms. Motara is executive director of the Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Center, based in Johannesburg. The center helps women who are victims of violence. She says South Africa‘s violent culture and widespread lack of respect for women often go against its progressive laws.
Motara 女士是约翰内斯堡 Tshwaranang 法律宣传中心的执行理事。该中心致力于帮助遭遇暴力的女性。她说，南非暴力文化和普遍对女性缺乏尊重与其法律常常背道而驰。
“We put the burden on women to say, you have to dress appropriately, you have to act appropriately so that, you know, you don’t get raped. And if you doget raped, the first question that gets asked was, ‘What did you say?’ or ‘Were you drunk?’ or ‘How were you dressed?’ So, it for me, it links back to that broader conversation that we’re having about gender inequality in, in our society in general.”
The nation was recently shocked by an especially brutal rape and murder of a teenager in the Western Cape. On November 1st, a South African court sentenced her rapist to two life sentences, the strongest possible punishment.
最近，西开普省非常残忍的青少年遭强奸杀害的事件震惊整个国家。11 月 1 日，南非某法庭判处她的施暴者被监禁 2 年，这算是最严厉的惩罚。
Bianca Valentine is a lawyer with the Tshwaranang Legal Advocacy Center. She says this recent case is a rare example of justice being done.
Bianca Valentine 是 Tshwaranang 法律宣传中心的律师。她说，近期的这个案件是少有的完成法律制裁的例子。
“I think that overall, unless you have extensive media coverage or you have victims who are being assisted by a, a well-structured and well-financed organization who is able to push the legal system, victims of sexual violence do notreceive adequate and effective justice through the criminal justice system.”
That is especially clear in other places on the continent. In Eastern Congo, both rebels and government forces have been accused of raping civilians in groups, as well as stealing and destroying property. Yet few rape cases are ever heard in a courtroom. Victims say the loss of respect unjustly suffered by the victims prevents them from reporting the crime.
Ms. Motara says it is important to change the outdated beliefs that affect not just South Africa, but all of Africa. She says the trauma of rape is keeping Africa from the success it deserves.
“We continue to live on a continent where, where women are second-class citizens, where what women do in a society is not valued, where violence against women, you know, is seen as, as par for the course -- it’s almost seen as normal. The bigger part of that problem, I think, for me, is that our leaders are not speaking up against the extent of the violence on the continent.”
Experts say changing the status of women will take time. That change will come too late for some women: In the time it has taken you to listen to this report, as many as ten South African women or girls were raped.
专家称，改变女性地位需要时间。这种改变对一些女性来说已经太迟了：在你听这篇报道的同时，就有多达 10 名非洲妇女或女孩遭遇强奸。
I’m Anita Powell, VOA News, Johannesburg.
You are listening to As It Is, from The Voice of America.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Justice for Rape Victims in Ugandan Refugee Camps
This year, the United Nations refugee agency opened its first mobile court program for refugees in Uganda. The traveling court was set up to help victims of rape and domestic violence seek justice. But many of the cultural barriers to punishing the attackers remain.
Life in a refugee camp is hard. But trying to get help from the law can be even harder. Refugees can have trouble understanding foreign legal systems. And, the camps are often far from the courthouse.
That is why in Uganda, the United Nations refugee agency -- the UNHCR -- decided to bring the courts to the refugees. Lucy Beck works for the agency.
这就是为什么在乌干达，联合国难民署（UNHCR）决定派遣法庭到难民中。Lucy Beck 在难民署工作。
“We set up these mobile courts as a result of refugees -- and some of the local Ugandans -- having to wait very long times before they had access to justice, or having to travel very long distances to reach the government courts.”
The court that travels to the Nakivale refugee settlement has held two meetings since it was established in May. The Ugandan government provides lawyers. There are similar courts in camps in Kenya and Zambia. But the Nakivale court is Uganda’s first.
前往纳基瓦莱难民据点的法庭自 5 月建立以来举行了两场会议。乌干达政府提供律师。在肯尼亚和赞比亚也有类似的法庭。但纳基瓦莱法庭是乌干达最早建立的。
All the cases -- until now -- have involved minor crimes. The UNHCR, however, plans to bring in a high court judge soon to hear 50 serious cases. Lucy Beck says most will be cases of rape.
截止目前，所有案件都是轻量级犯罪。不过，UNHCR 计划尽快派遣一位高等法院法官聆讯 50 起重大案件。Lucy Beck 说，大部分都将是强奸案。
Seventy-five percent of refugees in southwestern Uganda are from the nearby Democratic Republic of Congo. Rape is often used as a weapon of war in the DRC. The country is considered one of the most dangerous places in the world to be a woman.
The UNCHR has found that poverty and high unemployment rates among refugees make women more likely to be targets of rape.
Philbert Murungi of the American Refugee Committee works with rape victims. He says even a woman’s day-to-day activities can put her at risk.
美国难民委员会的 Philbert Murungi 为强奸受害者工作。他说，女性即使进行日常活动也会面临危险。
“Some of them are attacked on their way toward the water point. Some of them are attacked on their way towards collecting firewood for fuel and domestic use.”
He says women can suffer both social and physical harm from rape. He says the blame that is placed on rape victims can be crushing. The victims often are rejected by their families and blamed by their communities.
Mr. Murungi says there are what are called “safe houses” available for rape victims. He hopes that these places and the mobile courts will make it easier for women to report rape. But he adds that if they are unwilling to do so, there is only so much any court can do.
The mobile court can offer only so much help. Lucy Beck says more than 70 percent of rapes among Congolese refugees happened in the DRC. She says that makes it almost impossible to try the suspected attackers in Uganda.
流动法庭只能提供这么多帮助。 Lucy Beck 说，刚果难民中 70%以上的强奸发生在刚果共和国。她说，这使得在乌干达几乎不可能对这些犯罪嫌疑人进行审判。
For these women, justice may always remain out of reach.
And that’s our program for today.
I’m Christopher Cruise reporting from VOA Learning English headquarters in Washington.