Hello, and welcome back to As It Is from VOA Learning English.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Today on the program, we go to South Africa, where conservationists are using poisonto save rhinos…
“It is a little bit sore, but hard sore, but I’m, I’m happy in the fact that I now know that she is potentially very, very safe.”
Then, we go to Kenya, where wildlife officers are using high-tech methods to protect rhinos from poachers.
But first, we take you to Uganda, where hunters and farmers are threatening the country’s remaining lion population…
“If nothing is done and the population keeps going down, then it will not be likely that we will have them.”
Lions, and rhinos -- the subjects of our conversation today, as you learn everyday American English on As It Is, from VOA.
Can Uganda’s Lions Survive Poachers and Farmers?
Uganda’s lion population has fallen by 30 percent in the last ten years. Experts are warning that the big cats could soon disappear from the country. As Caty Weaver reports, that could hurt Uganda’s important and profitable tourism industry.
乌干达狮子的数量在过去 10 年下降了 30%。专家警告称，这种大型猫科动物很快就会从该国家消失。根据 Caty Weaver 的报道，这会对乌干达颇为重要且收入丰厚的旅游业造成损失。
We are in one of Uganda’s national parks. There are grasslands as far as the eye can see. And there are many travelers from around the world. They have woken up early -- before the sun rises -- and their camps are now empty.
They are hunting, not with guns but with cameras.
Jossy Muhangi works for the Uganda Wildlife Authority. He knows what the tourists seek.
Jossy Muhangi 在乌干达野生动物管理局工作。他知道游客寻求的是什么。
“For most of our game drives, people want to wake up at 6 a.m., in the wee hours, and they really look. Their first choice or the favorite animals for the tourists -- be it local or international -- would be a lion. For every tourist who comes to Uganda, the dream would be to at least spot a lion.”
“对于我们的大多数行程，人们要在早上 6 点起床，很早。他们的第一选择，或者游客最喜爱的动物——不管是当地的还是国际的游客——都是狮子。对每一个来到乌干达的游客来说，其梦想就是至少要拍到一头狮子。”
Lions are growing harder to find throughout Uganda. Last month, the non-profit organization Wildlife Conservation Society said now only a little more than 400 lions remain in Uganda. That is one third less than ten years ago.
乌干达越来越难找到狮子。上个月，非营利组织野生动物保护协会称，现在乌干达仅剩 400 多头狮子，这比 10 年前少了 1/3。
Tutilo Mudumba is a researcher with the Wildlife Conservation Society, or WCS. He says lions face many threats.
Tutilo Mudumba 是野生动物保护协会（WCS）的研究人员。他说，狮子面临多重威胁。
“You may find illegal poaching using, for example, air snares, taking place in Murchison Falls National Park. You may have a problem of competition for grazing land between lion prey and cattle, and then you have sometimes poisoning, we suspect to clear the area of predators so that they can use it for grazing.”
Mr. Mudumba says if no action is taken to reduce these threats, lions could one day disappear from Uganda.
“If nothing is done and the population keeps going down, then it will not be likely that we will have them. If they reduce by 30 percent every 10 years, then of course those are the number of years left for you to have zero.”
“如果不采取行动，而且数量持续下降，那我们可能就无法再拥有它们了。如果它们每 10 年都减少 30%，那么当然 30 年后我们将一无所有。”
The disappearance of lions from Uganda could hurt the country’s economy. In 2006, the WCS studied the expectations and spending of visitors to Uganda. It found that each lion was worth $13,500 a year to the economy. The study also found that only 60 percent of tourists would still visit Uganda’s national parks if there were no lions left. The World Bank estimates tourism brought 1 billion dollars to Uganda’s economy last year.
乌干达狮子的消失会损害该国家的经济。2006 年，WCS 研究了乌干达访客的期望和花费。它发现，每头狮子每年相当于带来 1.35 万美元的经济价值。该研究还发现，如果没有狮子，则只有 60%的旅客会来到乌干达的国家公园。据世界银行估算，旅游业去年给乌干达经济带来了 10 亿美元。
I’m Caty Weaver.
Using Poison to Save Rhinos in South Africa
The illegal hunting, or poaching, of rhinoceroses has increased in recent years in South Africa -- where most of the world’s rhinos live.
Almost 800 rhinos have been poached in South Africa so far this year. That is more than three percent of the country’s rhino population.
今年到目前为止，南非有近 800 头犀牛被捕杀。这比该国家犀牛数量的 3% 还多。
Rhinos are killed for their horns. These can be illegally sold for tens of thousands of dollars in Asia. The horn is used in traditional Chinese medicine. The rhinos’ eyes and tail are sometimes used in other traditional activities.
Graham Shipway runs a business in the Plumari Africa Game Reserve near Johannesburg. He found at least two dead rhinos last month.
Graham Shipway 在约翰内斯堡附近的 Plumari 非洲野生动物保护区做生意。他上个月至少发现两头犀牛死亡。
“This is a female rhino, pregnant, 23 years old. Last Saturday she was poached. You can see over here the bullet hole. It’s a through and through, which means it’s a heavy caliber bullet. They hacked off her horn, as you can see here. They gouged out her eyes, as you can see. And they cut off her tail -- all for two kilograms of horn.”
The government and private game reserves are trying different ways to fight poachers -- including armed patrols. They are also cutting off rhinos’ horns, and even poisoning the horns. This makes them worthless on the black market. Several hundred rhino horns have been injected with poison so far this year. Officials hope the poisoning will help save rhinos from extinction.
The rhino is injected with a drug that paralyzes the animal but does not make them unconscious. Then, a hole is drilled into its horn. A poison that is dyed red is then put into the hole. Conservationist Lorinda Hern says the poison is safe for rhinos, but harmful to humans. They can suffer from vomiting, diarrhea and nerve damage. In some cases, the poison can kill a person.
犀牛被注射一种会使其麻痹但不会失去意识的药物。然后，它的角上被钻一个洞。一种染成红色的毒药会注入洞中。自然资源保护者 Lorinda Hern 说，该毒药对犀牛是无害的，但对人类有害。他们会出现呕吐、腹泻和神经损伤。在一些案例中，这种毒药能致人死亡。
“If you buy a horn and it’s this kind of color you obviously know that it’s been tampered with and that it’s not safe for human consumption. So, yeah, 60,000 U.S. dollars per kilo versus zero.”
“如果你买一只犀牛角而它是这种颜色，你可以清楚地知道它被处理过了，而且对人类的消费不安全。因此，每公斤 6 万美元就打了水漂。”
Once the poison is placed in the rhino’s horn, the rhino wakes up, unharmed.
“It’s a little bit sore, but hard sore, but I’m, I’m happy in the fact that I now know that she is potentially very, very safe.”
Conservationists hope to save hundreds of rhinos each year by making their horns worthless to poachers.
Using High-Tech Devices to Save Rhinos in Kenya
Wildlife officials in Kenya for the first time are using high-tech efforts to fight rhino poaching. They are placing small devices into the rhinos, called transponders. The transponders let officials follow the animal and even the horn if it is cut off. Using the transponders is necessary to fight the increasing poaching of rhinos in Kenya.
The country’s chief law official said poachers have killed 90 elephants and 35 rhinos this year.
该国家的最高法律官员称，今年偷猎者杀害了 90 头大象和 35 头犀牛。
Last month, the Kenya Wildlife Service used a helicopter to gather rhinos in an area of Nakuru National Park. A team of rangers shot the rhinos with drugs to make them sleep. They then put four transponders into each rhino -- one in the front horn, another in the smaller rear horn as well as one each in the neck and the tail.
上个月，肯尼亚野生动物服务署使用直升机在纳库鲁国家公园某地区搜集犀牛。一个巡逻队用药物射击犀牛，使之昏睡。然后他们在每头犀牛体内植入 4 个收发器——前角上 1 个，较小的后角上 1 个，脖颈和尾巴各 1 个。
The transponders were donated to the Kenya Wildlife Service by the World Wildlife Fund.
And that’s our program for today.
I’m Christopher Cruise reporting from VOA Learning English headquarters in Washington.