From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is. I’m Steve Ember.
Today we’ll hear about the current threat of huge, very destructive wildfires.
Then to Cambodia, where a university is providing the first formal training for badly needed social workers.
And finally, we celebrate the anniversary of the opening, in 1947, of the classic Tennessee Williams play, “A Streetcar Named Desire.”
最后，我们庆祝 1947 年田纳西•威廉斯经典之作《欲望号街车》的开演纪念日。
But first, we hear from experts about that threatening increase in huge wildfires.
Climate Change, Land Use, Human Actions to Blame for Mega-Fires
Australia, Indonesia, Russia , Greece and the United States… Those are just a few places where huge wildfires have been a problem in recent years. In the American West, for example, three wildfires caused major damage earlier this year. Fire experts say most of these fires are a result of climate change, land use and human actions.
澳大利亚、印度尼西亚、俄罗斯、希腊和美国……这仅是今年遭遇巨大火灾的少数几个地方。比如，在美国西部，今年早些时候的 3 起大火造成了重大损失。消防专家称，这些火灾大部分都是气候变化、土地使用和人类活动的结果。
[TV News coverage of 2013 Colorado wildfires]
June 2013: The Black Forest Fire destroys more than 500 homes in Colorado. Weeks later in Arizona, the Yarnell Hill fire kills 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots -- a group known for its firefighting expertise. Then, in California, the Rim Fire becomes the third largest fire in state history.
2013 年 6 月：科罗拉多州的黑森林火灾毁坏了 500 多处房屋。几周后的亚利桑那州，雅纳尔山大火导致 19 位“花岗岩山高手”消防小组成员死亡——该小组以消防技术著名。接下来，加利福尼亚州的“环火”成为了加州历史上的第三大火灾。
Bill Kaage directs wildland fire operations for the United States Park Service at the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise, Idaho. He says huge, costly wildfires were once rare.
Bill Kaage 在爱达荷州博伊西国家林火协调中心的美国国家公园管理局负责野外火灾。他说，破坏惨重的大型火灾曾经很少见。
“In the western United States, we have larger fires that occur over a larger period of time…”
Mr. Kaage says this change is forcing fire officials to change their methods.
United Nations officials and fire experts say long periods of dry weather are one reason for the fires. They suspect the lack of rainfall results from climate change.
[Helicopter sound and earth moving equipment]
Another suspected cause is land use, including years of protecting new communities in areas where fires were likely. The idea is to aggressively put out all wildfires. That policy is called suppression.
But Stephen Pyne of Arizona State University does not believe the suppression method is successful. He says it has failed in every country likely to have wildfires.
但亚利桑那州立大学的 Stephen Pyne 不认为抑制的方法是成功的。他说，在野火多发的每个国家它都失败了。
“(When) the smoke is on the horizon, and the TV cameras are out, it seems like an easy solution to call in the troops, bring in the airplanes and the helicopters, bomb it away, and then the problem is gone. All we’ve done is put it off.”
Firefighter: “Turn on your emergency lights…”
Stephen Pyne says suppression is a temporary measure that creates more dangerous fires later. It enables smaller trees and plants to build up. This vegetation acts as fuel that can carry fire to taller treetops.
Stephen Pyne 说，抑制政策是一种会造成更多后续危险的临时措施。它使矮小树木得以生长，这些植被会像燃料一样把火苗引向更高的树梢。
Firefighter: “We have a burn-out going on the south side…”
Oregon forester Marc Barnes says that when fires burned at low intensity in the past, it would clean the forest. Now, he says, fires are burning at high intensity and destroying all the trees and the forest.
俄勒冈州林业人员 Marc Barnes 说，过去火势较弱的时候，这样算是清理了森林。而现在火势变强了，能烧毁所有的树木和森林。
He says money for fire-fighting should be spent on preventive measures like fuel reduction.
“Otherwise, we’re just going to keep having bigger and bigger fires. We’re going to spend more and more and a lot less is going to get done by those agencies.”
He adds that “so much of their budgets are getting eclipsed by the budgets for fire suppression.”
Bill Kaage says the federal deficit has forced agencies like his to cut their budgets for fuel reduction.
Bill Kaage 说，联邦赤字迫使他们这类机构为减少易燃植被而削减预算。
“There’s a choice we’ve had to make to make sure we have the engines and the crews available to us for a response.”
The United States Congress has demanded a national plan of action to fight wildfires. Stephen Pyne says the move is, in his words “bold but underfunded.”
美国国会要求制定应对森林火灾的行动计划。Stephen Pyne 说，这个举动用他的话说“大胆却资金不足”。
It is meant to help government, landowners and others fight dangerous problems that seem to get worse year by year.
As It Is is coming to you from VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember.
Cambodian University Provides Training for Social Workers
Next, we visit Cambodia to hear about professional training for people learning to make life better for victims of troubling social problems. Avi Arditti tells us more…
Cambodia has about 3,000 recognized non-profit groups. Some work on issues such as violence against women and human trafficking. But few Cambodians are trained for such work. That is now changing with the country’s first university-level degree program for social workers.
柬埔寨有大约 3000 名获得认证的非营利组织，其中一些致力于处理对女性的暴力和贩卖人口等问题。但很少有柬埔寨人接受这方面的培训。随着该国家首个为社会工作者开设的大学学位课程的出现，这一情况正在改变。
Yoeung Kimheng grew up near the city of Phnom Penh. He saw troubling social problems, but few people were in a position to help.
Yoeung Kimheng 在金边市附近长大。他见证了很多令人困扰的社会问题，但却很少有人能帮上忙。
Now, thanks to the university program, he himself may soon be equipped to help. He has finished a four-year program in the Department of Social Work at the Royal University of Phnom Penh. His class is set to graduate later this year. It will be the second graduating class for the department.
现在，多亏了这个大学项目，他自己很快就将做好帮忙的准备。他在金边皇家大学社会工作系完成了 4 年制学业。他的班级将在今年晚些时候毕业。这将是该系的第二届毕业班。
Social workers often work with people who have suffered emotional damage. Yet, until the university started the department in 2008, there was no degree-level program in Cambodia for training social workers.
社会工作者通常与受情感伤害的人共事。然而，直到该大学在 2008 年开设了这个系，柬埔寨才有了培训社会工作者的大学课程。
Outreach groups have traditionally depended on foreign experts, or largely untrained local staff who learned on the job.
Ung Kimkanika is a faculty member in the department.
Ung Kimkanika 是该系的教职工。
“So I think to have the situation is Cambodian and only Cambodian or Khmer people would understand well about the situation.”
The Department of Social Work at the Royal University of Phnom Penh has a partnership with the School of Social Work at the University of Washington in Seattle. Through that partnership, Ung Kimkanika and other Cambodian students went to the United States to study and earn master’s degrees. Now, they have come back and are teaching other students.
金边皇家大学的社会工作系与西雅图华盛顿大学的社会工作学院有合作关系。通过这种合作，Ung Kimkanika 和其他柬埔寨学生来到了美国学习，并获得了硕士学位。现在，他们回国教授其他学生。
The social work program at the Royal University of Phnom Penh will likely become even more important in the coming months. A war crimes court is nearing the end of one part of a case against former Khmer Rouge leaders. Faculty member Ung Kimkanika says the decision of the court could bring back bad memories among survivors of the communist rulers. I'm Avi Arditti.
“Hey, Stella!” – Remembering “A Streetcar Named Desire”
[Music by Alex North from “A Streetcar Named Desire”]
I’m Steve Ember with As It Is, coming to you from VOA Learning English.
And now, we remember the opening of Tennessee Williams’ play, “A Streetcar Named Desire” on Broadway in New York on December 3rd, 1947. The story tells of a violent clash between Stanley Kowalski, played by Marlon Brando, and Blanche DuBois, played by Jessica Tandy. Kim Hunter played the role of Stella, Stanley’s wife.
现在，我们纪念 1947 年 12 月 3 日田纳西•威廉斯的《欲望号街车》在纽约百老汇开演。这个故事讲述了马龙•白兰度饰演的史丹利•柯文斯基与杰西卡•坦迪饰演的布兰奇•杜波依斯之间的暴力冲突。金•亨特饰演史丹利的妻子斯特拉。
The play’s sexual violence shocked the audience. When the drama was finished, people sat in silence for a minute. Then they applauded for half an hour.
Marlon Brando (from the film version of “Streetcar”): “Hey, Stella!”
The young Brando immediately became a star. He went on to play Stanley Kowalski in the movie version. Jessica Tandy won a Tony Award for her performance. Tennessee Williams won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.
And that’s our show for today. As It Is is a production of VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember. See you next time.
Marlon Brando with Kim Hunter (from the film version): “Don’t ever leave me, baby.” [Stella sobs]