Welcome to As It Is from VOA Learning English. I’m Mario Ritter in Washington.
Today, we have a special report on the memorial service for former South African President Nelson Mandela. Thousands of mourners attended the service on Tuesday in Johannesburg. The attendees included more than 70 heads of state, including the president of the United States, Barack Obama.
今天我们带来有关前南非总统纳尔逊•曼德拉追悼会的特别报道。数千名悼念者周二在约翰内斯堡参加追悼会。参与者包括 70 多位国家首脑，包括美国总统巴拉克•奥巴马。
Later, we tell about Mandela’s part in ending white minority rule in South Africa.
Mandela's Emotional Memorial
South Africans gathered Tuesday to remember and mourn former South African leader Nelson Mandela. He was recognized for his long fight against racial separation, or apartheid, in South Africa. George Grow has the report by VOA’s Anita Powell who was there.
Rainy weather did not stop more than 60,000 South Africans, foreign officials and others from meeting at the Johannesburg soccer stadium to celebrate the life of Nelson Mandela.
阴雨无法阻挡 6 万多名南非人、外国官员和其他人士聚集在约翰内斯堡足球场，向纳尔逊•曼德拉的一生致敬。
The former president and anti-apartheid leader died Thursday at the age of 95. He had suffered continued lung infections.
这位前总统和反种族隔离领袖在上周四去世，享年 95 岁。他一直饱受肺部感染的折磨。
He was praised in South Africa and around the world for leading the intense struggle to end South Africa’s oppressive system of racial separation. He spent 27 years in prison for his opposition to the government. But after his release, he would become South Africa’s first black president in 1994.
他带领的终结南非种族隔离压迫统治的艰苦斗争受到了南非和全世界的称赞。他因反对政府而在监狱度过了 27 年。但在他获释后，他于 1994 年成为了南非第一位黑人总统。
Nelson Mandela was considered extraordinary for his growth during his years in prison from an angry youth leader to a wise statesman. He became known for stressing the need for racial reconciliation in a deeply divided nation.
World leaders and celebrities and crowds of South Africans met at the stadium. Mr. Mandela’s last public appearance was in 2010 at the World Cup finals.
世界领导人和名人以及南非群众聚集在这座运动场。曼德拉的最后一次公众亮相是 2010 年世界杯决赛。
U.S. President Barack Obama spoke at the memorial. He said Mr. Mandela is his teacher, his example.
“Over thirty years ago, while still a student, I learned of Mandela and the struggles in this land. It stirred something in me. It woke me up to my responsibilities - to others, and to myself - and set me on an improbable journey that finds me here today. And while I will always fall short of Madiba’s example, he makes me want to be better. He speaks to what is best inside us. “
Forty-five-year-old Johannesburg resident Thuli Fihla said she could not miss the event. She credits Mr. Mandela for helping her get ahead in life.
45 岁的约翰内斯堡居民 Thuli Fihla 说，她不会错过这样的大事。她称赞曼德拉帮助她在生活中前进。
“As a South African, and someone who has seen apartheid before and now witnessed the new democracy, there was no way I could miss this day. Mandela is everything to us. I’ve got the kind of job that I have now because of Mandela. I have the kind of home that I have now because of Mandela. You know, everything we have in this country, we owe to Mandela and his colleagues.”
Mr. Mandela was also a politician. And his memorial was not free of politics. Mr. Mandela’s death has taken place at a time of rising disapproval for President Jacob Zuma who has been accused of corruption. The crowd expressed disapproval of Mr. Zuma many times during the event. The gathering cheered former President Thabo Mbeki and even cheered the nation’s last apartheid president, F.W. de Klerk.
Mr. Mandela’s body will now go to the capital, Pretoria, where it will remain for three days. He will then be buried in a family ceremony in his ancestral home of Qunu. Each province will also hold memorial ceremonies.
曼德拉的遗体现在将送往首都比勒陀尼亚，在那里停放 3 天。然后在他的祖籍库努的一个家族仪式上下葬。每个省都会举行追悼活动。
I’m George Grow.
How a Former Prisoner Ended Aparteid
South Africa’s system of racial separation and white rule ended in a surprising way: not with violence -- but through compromise and negotiations. VOA’s Anita Powell in Johannesburg spoke with two South Africans who took part in the talks. Caty Weaver has her report.
It began secretly in the 1980s with unofficial talks between Nelson Mandela and members of the South African intelligence service. At the time, Mandela had spent more than 20 years in prison for fighting the white minority government and its racial policies.
20 世纪 80 年代，一次非官方会面在纳尔逊•曼德拉和南非情报部门成员之间秘密展开。当时，曼德拉因为与白人政府及其种族政策作对，在监狱里度过了 20 多年。
Nelson Mandela later wrote that he made a decision to reach out to the government. It was possibly the wisest political decision of his life. It led to the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize and later, his election as South Africa’s first black president.
Dave Steward is head of the FW De Klerk Foundation. He says Mandela’s decision was the right move. It showed the ANC was a political force that could be taken seriously. But it did not please militant members of the African National Congress.
Dave Steward 是弗雷德里克•威廉•德克勒克基金会的主管。他说，曼德拉的决定是正确之举。它体现了非洲国民大会（ANC）是一个值得正视的政治力量。但它也让 ANC 的激进分子感到不满。
Twenty years ago, Dave Steward was a top assistant to Mr. De Klerk, who was South Africa’s president. Mr. De Klerk was involved in the later part of the negotiations. He shared the Nobel Prize with Mr. Mandela.
20 年前，Dave Steward 是南非总统德克勒克的最高助理。德克勒克参与了后期的谈判。他与曼德拉一起获得诺贝尔奖。
“The role played by Nelson Mandela at this juncture was extremely important. Sitting in prison at Pollsmoore in Capetown, he reached the conclusion, by himself and often against the advice and wishes of his colleagues, that there was not going to be an armed or military outcome to the struggle in South Africa, that there would have to be a negotiated solution.”
Jay Naidoo was active in the struggle against apartheid. He says only Nelson Mandela had the ability to take such an unpopular step within the ANC. Mr. Naidoo was then head of South Africa’s largest group of trade unions.
Jay Naidoo 在反对种族隔离的斗争中表现活跃。他说，只有纳尔逊•曼德拉有这样的能力在 ANC 内部采取如此不受欢迎的举动。Naidoo 当时是南非最大工会组织的主管。
“The apartheid regime could not defeat us and we could not defeat them. We were at a stalemate. The alternative was a scorched earth. So in that context, leaders rose on both sides of the conflict to say, ‘How do we lay the basis for a peaceful settlement?’ And there was no better person to lead our side than Nelson Mandela, someone who had spent 27 years in jail for our freedom.”
“种族隔离政权无法打败我们，我们也不能打败它。我们僵持不下。另一种选择就是生灵涂炭。所以在这种情形下，领导者对冲突双方说，‘我们如何能够构建和平解决的根基？’没有人比纳尔逊•曼德拉这个为了我们的自由在监狱度过 27 年的人更适合带领我们这一方了。”
Jay Naidoo also praises the labor movement and the work of trade union negotiators.
Jay Naidoo 还称赞了劳工运动和工会谈判代表的努力。
“We had a whole decade of negotiations on very tough and adversarial issues before the political negotiation process started. So I think generally speaking, the environment and the conditions for negotiations towards a peaceful settlement of the racial question and apartheid issues in South Africa, was led in very different places.”
在政治谈判程序启动之前，我们在非常艰难和棘手的问题上花了整整 10 年时间磋商。因此总得来说，在南非种族问题和种族隔离问题上，面向和平解决方案的谈判环境和条件带来了非常不一样的结果。
Dave Steward says things changed quickly after the negotiations started. He says Mandela went on the offensive and “came out swinging” – a plan that might have failed with someone else.
Dave Steward 说，在谈判开始之后，事态发展得很快。他说，曼德拉继续自己的攻势和“放手一搏”——这个计划如果是其他人可能就失败了。
“In fact, some of his attacks on De Klerk were quite brutal. These issues could have led to serious complications in the negotiating process if different personalities were involved.”
Both men also noted another issue that often is raised in discussions about Nelson Mandela: his powerful personality and his humility. It was that rare combination, they said, that enabled Mandela to take a brave step that changed the world around him.
I’m Caty Weaver.
And that is our show for today. For more programs, English teaching lessons and videos, visit our website: www.voanews.cn.