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[翻译]新闻传真 - WHO:测试、治疗营养不良儿童的艾滋病

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-12-23 11:28:59

From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is.

I’m Steve Ember in Washington.

Today on our program, we tell about a study that shows vitamins and mineral supplements can safely slow the progress of the virus that causes the disease AIDS.

在今天的节目里,我们讲述一项研究,它表明维生素和矿物质可以安全地减缓艾滋病病毒的扩散。

The study found that when provided early to patients, a simple multivitamin combined with selenium can slow the progress of HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus.  But one of the world’s top AIDS researchers is disputing the findings.  We’ll hear from him later.

研究发现,如果能尽早向病人提供一种简单的含硒复合维生素,就能减缓人体免疫缺损病毒(HIV)的扩散。但一位世界顶尖艾滋病研究人员则对该成果提出异议。

But first, we have a report from the World Health Organization.  WHO officials now say children can and should be tested and treated for HIV, even if they are severely malnourished.

不过首先,我们带来一篇来自世界卫生组织(WHO)的报告。现在,WHO 官员提出,即便是严重营养不良的儿童也可以且应该接受艾滋病测试和治疗。

New Treatment Rules Suggested for Malnourished Children

对营养不良儿童提出新的治疗规定

The WHO says affected children can now be treated at home with special foods and antibiotic drugs, instead of being taken to a hospital for treatment.

WHO 称,受影响的儿童现在可以在家里通过特殊食物和抗生素药物接受治疗,而不需要到医院治疗。

WHO officials are defining severe acute malnutrition as very low weight for height, and severe wasting.  They say almost 20 million children under the age of five suffer from the condition.  Most of these boys and girls are said to live in Africa and Southeast Asia.

WHO 官员定义“严重急性营养不良”为体重身高比很低,且严重消瘦。他们说,有近 2 千万的 5 岁以下儿童处于这种状况。据称这些孩子大多数生活在非洲和东南亚。

The WHO says malnutrition is one reason for more than a third of all deaths of children under the age of five.

WHO 称,营养不良是超过 1/3 的 5 岁以下儿童死亡的原因之一。

Zita Weise Prinzo helped to write the new report.  She works in the WHO’s Department of Nutrition for Health and Development.

Zita Weise Prinzo 参与撰写了这篇新报告。她在世界卫生组织的健康与发展营养部门工作。

She says the WHO is now advising that not all severely acutely malnourished children go to a hospital.  She says children already identified with the condition can be treated at home if they are hungry and have no other medical problem.  She notes that a hospitalized child could develop other infections.  And, being at home avoids hospital costs and lets a caretaker stay with the child.

她说,现在,WHO 建议一些存在严重急性营养不良的儿童不需要去医院。她说,如果存在该状况的儿童感到饥饿且没有其他健康问题,他们就可以在家接受治疗。她指出,住院儿童可能感染其他病毒。而且,在家里可以节省住院费,并让看护人与孩子呆在一起。

Ms. Prinzo says home care does not mean doctors will not see the child.  Doctors will work closely with families to help them give the child special foods and antibiotics, and examine the child from time to time.

Prinzo 说,家庭护理不意味着医生就不来看孩子。医生会与家人密切合作,帮助他们给孩子提供特殊食物和抗生素,并时常对孩子进行检查。

The WHO also says children with severe acute malnutrition should be tested -- and, if necessary, treated -- for HIV, the cause of AIDS.

WHO 还表示,严重急性营养不良儿童应该测试——必要时治疗——艾滋病病毒。

Ms. Prinzo says that such testing was not advised in the past.  That was because there was not enough knowledge about treating severe acute malnutrition, or even children who have HIV, with the available drugs.

Prinzo 说,过去并不建议这种测试,因为那时候不具备足够的检测严重急性营养不良甚至艾滋病儿童的知识,及药物。

The WHO report sets measures for identifying children at risk of severe acute malnutrition before they develop serious health problems.  These include use of vitamin A supplements in treatment and detailed suggestions for treating babies under the age of six months.

这份 WHO 报告提出了在孩子出现严重健康问题之前鉴定严重急性营养不良的措施,包括在治疗中使用维生素 A 补剂,以及治疗 6 个月以下婴儿的详细建议。

Ms. Prinzo says if the new guidelines are enforced at the country level, the chance of survival for children with severe acute malnutrition will be greatly improved. However, she said many developing countries do not have the money or workers to carry out the recommendations.

Prinzo 说,如果这些新的指导说明能够在国家层面实施,严重急性营养不良儿童的存活几率就会大幅提高。但是,她表示很多发展中国家没有实施这些建议措施的资金或工作人员。

You’re listening to As It Is from VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember.

Disputed Study Claims Vitamins, Minerals Slow Progress of HIV

争议研究提出维生素和矿物质减缓艾滋病扩散

Patients with HIV often develop shortages of vitamins in the body.  Researchers examined whether giving these patients a multivitamin with a mineral supplement helps to improve the body’s natural defenses in fighting disease.

艾滋病患者的体内经常缺乏维生素。研究人员测试了一种含有矿物质补剂的复合维生素是否能帮助病人提高机体对该疾病的自然抵御功能。

For 30 years, AIDS has been a major health problem in some African countries south of the Sahara Desert.  In Botswana, one of every four adults is infected with HIV.  Yet the country also has aggressive AIDS prevention campaigns.  That is why Professor Marianna Baum decided to carry out her research on HIV and vitamins there.

30 年来,艾滋病成为了一些撒哈拉以南非洲国家的主要健康问题。在博茨瓦纳,有1/4 成年人感染艾滋病,而该国家还有颇为积极的艾滋病预防运动。这也是为什么 Marianna Baum 教授决定对那里的艾滋病和维生素展开研究。

“Botswana has been one of the hardest-hit countries with the HIV virus.”

“博茨瓦纳是受艾滋病病毒影响最严重的国家之一。”

Professor Baum studied almost 900 newly-infected adults in Botswana who had not yet been given anti-AIDS drugs that target HIV.  The adults were divided into groups.  Each group got different combinations of vitamins B, C and E, the mineral selenium, or a harmless substance -- a placebo.

Baum 教授研究了博茨瓦纳近 900 例新感染艾滋病的成年人,他们尚未接受抗艾滋病药物。这些成年人被分组,每组接受不同剂量组合的维生素B、C、E 和矿物质硒,或者一种无害物质——安慰剂。

Most patients with HIV do not have enough of these vitamins.  The vitamins help to strengthen the body’s immune system.  Professor Baum says she thought the multivitamins by themselves or selenium by itself would help strengthen the immune system.  She was wrong.

大多数艾滋病患者缺乏这些维生素,而维生素能够加强身体的免疫系统。Baum 教授说,她本以为是复合维生素本身、或硒本身有助于加强免疫系统,但她错了。

“We were surprised to find that only the combination was effective.”

我们惊讶地发现只有混合在一起才有效。

Studies show that when people with HIV begin taking anti-retroviral drugs shortly after infection, they can stay healthy and are less likely to pass the virus to their sexual partners.  But many patients do not have enough money to pay for treatment.

研究显示,如果艾滋病患者在感染后不久就开始接受抗逆转录病毒药物,他们可以保持健康,而且降低将病毒传染给性伴侣的几率。但很多病人没钱支付这种治疗。

Professor Baum says the vitamin and mineral therapy combination should help people in low-income countries better control the virus.

Baum 教授说,维生素和矿物质结合治疗应该可以帮助低收入国家的人更好地控制这种病毒。

“A simple multivitamin supplementation with selenium provided early in HIV disease can actually slow the HIV disease progression, and it is safe. It is low-cost and it should be provided very early in HIV infection.”

“在艾滋病早期提供简单的含硒复合维生素可以有效减缓艾滋病扩散,并且是安全的。它成本低,而且应在感染艾滋病后尽早使用。”

She says the vitamin therapy should not replace anti-retroviral drugs, but it can help people who cannot get those medicines.

她说,维生素治疗不能替代抗逆转录病毒药物,但它可以帮助无法得到这些药物的人。

American Anthony Fauci is a world famous expert on AIDS. He disagrees with the findings of the study.

美国的 Anthony Fauci 是世界知名艾滋病专家。他不同意这些研究成果。

“I haven’t read the paper, but having taken care of HIV-infected individuals for three decades, I would doubt that vitamins are going to have a major effect on suppressing the virus.”

“我还没有读这篇文章,但与感染艾滋病病毒的人打交道 30 年,我很怀疑维生素能对抑制该病毒有明显效果。”

Dr. Fauci says vitamin and mineral supplements might make a patient generally healthier. But he says only anti-retroviral drugs have been proven to control HIV.

Fauci 医生说,维生素和矿物质补剂通常可以让病人更健康。但他说,只有抗逆转录病毒药物被证实能够控制艾滋病病毒。

Professor Baum’s study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Baum 教授的研究发表在《美国医学学会杂志》上。

The Banded Wooly Worm: A New Source of Weather Predicting?

带状毛虫:预测天气的新资源?

It’s As It Is, coming to you from VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember.

[Dean Martin Sings “Let It Snow”]
Oh, the weather outside is frightful
But the fire is so delightful,
And since we’ve no place to go,
Let it snow, let it snow, let it snow…

Finally, many Americans depend on weather experts to tell what the upcoming seasons will be like.  But these days, others are predicting winter weather based on the wooly bear caterpillar, also known as the banded wooly worm.

最后,有很多美国人依靠气象专家了解下个季节的天气,但近日有些人则靠带状毛虫来预测冬季天气。

A popular story says the little insect can tell us what kind of season lies ahead.  It has dark, black bands at each end and a reddish brown color in the middle.  The story says that if the reddish-brown ring on its body is small, the winter weather will be severe.  But wide bands of reddish-brown mean a mild winter.

一篇广为流传的报道指出,一种小昆虫可以告诉我们接下来的天气怎么样。它的两端有暗黑色条纹,中段是红棕色。该报道称,如果它身体上的红棕色条纹变小,冬天的天气就很冷;而宽的红棕色条纹则说明是暖冬。

So what kind of season will this winter be?  That seems to depend on which wooly worm you look at!  Me? Think I’ll look at some wide-banded wooly worms…and cross my fingers.

As It Is is a production of VOA Learning English. Steve Ember here, thanks for joining us. See you next time.

[Dean Martin]
Let it Snow
Let it snow
Let it snow!