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[翻译]新闻传真 - 阿富汗 2014 年面临选举和安全问题

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-12-30 10:39:35

From VOA Learning English this is As It Is.

Welcome back to the show.  I’m Caty Weaver.

After more than ten years of war, Afghanistan faces another difficult year ahead.  In 2014, all international combat forces are to withdraw from the country.  The amount of aid money coming into the country will slow, rebel violence will likely continue, the economy will likely remain weak, and there will be a presidential election.  We’ll have a report from Kabul.

在 10 多年的战争之后,阿富汗仍面临艰难的下一年。2014 年,所有国际军队将从该国家撤离。阿富汗接受的援助资金将减缓、叛军冲突将会继续、经济将会持续疲软,还有总统选举。

Pakistan will continue to have a major influence on events in Afghanistan next year. But the good news is relations between the two countries are improving.  We’ll have a report from Islamabad.

巴基斯坦明年将继续对阿富汗产生重大影响。但好消息是这两个国家的关系正在改善。

Afganistan: the year in review and a look at the future for the troubled country and its relations with neighboring Pakistan -- on As It Is today.

Now, Christopher Cruise has a report from VOA Reporter Sharon Behn in Kabul on the challenges ahead for Afghanistan.

Afghanistan Faces Election, Security Challenges in 2014

阿富汗 2014 年面临选举和安全问题

This April, Afghanistan will choose its first government since the U.S. intervention that does not include Afghan leader Hamid Karzai.

明年 4 月,阿富汗将选出美国干预排除阿富汗领导人哈米德•卡尔扎伊后的第一届政府。

Critics say Mr. Karzai has changed greatly since his start as a dependable U.S. ally. They say over time he has become an unpredictable leader who upsets both his foreign partners and his Afghan allies.

批评者说,卡尔扎伊以美国可靠同盟的身份上台后发生了很大改变。他们指出,他随时间变成了一个难以预知的领导人,使得他的外国合作伙伴和阿富汗同盟都感到不安。

Still, Mr. Karzai is seen as a force for continuity in Afghanistan.   And young people growing up in busy cities like Kabul have expectations of a better future.

然而,卡尔扎伊仍被看作可以使阿富汗得以完整的力量。在喀布尔这样的大城市成长起来的年轻人仍对美好未来怀有希望。

Kate Clark works for the non-profit research group Afghanistan Analysts Network. She says fierce power struggles and lawlessness in the country mean it is unlikely next year’s election will be free and fair.

Kate Clark 为非营利研究机构“阿富汗分析家网络”工作。她说,该国家激烈的权力争夺和无法律状态意味着明年的选举很难自由、公正。

“The ideal is that you have someone that has a popular consensus. And I think that’s difficult.  The fraud is so much that you are not going to get everyone happy, and it’s a question of how messy it’s going to be.”

“理想的是有能够得到共识的人。而我认为这很难。欺诈很难让每个人都满意,问题只在于它将有多混乱。”

There are also questions about what will happen to U.S. forces now in Afghanistan. Mr. Karzai has refused to sign a joint security agreement that would keep some of them in the country to train, assist and equip Afghan forces.

另外的问题是目前在阿富汗的美国军队将会如何。卡尔扎伊拒绝签署一份保留部分美军在该国家训练、协助和配备阿富汗军队的联合安全协议。

The nation’s tribal elders approved the security deal, but Mr. Karzai ignored them. He said the agreement should only be signed after the elections and peace and security are established in the country.

阿富汗的部落长老批准了这项安全协议,但卡尔扎伊置之不理。他说,该协议只有在选举之后,并且和平、安全得以保证的情况下才能签署。

Taliban militants also rejected the proposed security agreement. And there does not appear to be any progress toward a peace agreement between the government and militants.

塔利班武装也反对这项安全协议草案。在政府和武装分子之间看不到任何面向和平协议的进展。

Former Afghan High Peace Council member Abdul Hakim Mujahid once was a member of the Taliban.  He says Afghanistan would be putting at risk some of the gains it has made if it cannot reach a deal with the militants.

前阿富汗高级和平委员会成员 Abdul Hakim Mujahid 曾是塔利班的一员。他说,如果阿富汗不能与武装分子达成协议,它取得的部分收获将陷入危机。

“If we couldn’t reach a political settlement and we went to the general election, and a president came in power who is not assured of a political settlement, we will (have) lost at least five years, unfortunately for peace, and we will for more five years, and the fighting and the crisis will be continued for more than five years in this country.”

“如果我们不能达成政治解决方案而进行大选,被选上台的总统无法确保政治解决方案,我们将很不幸地损失至少 5 年的和平,而这个国家的战争和危机将持续存在超过 5 年时间。”

Afghan forces are increasingly taking the lead in security from international forces. But security forces are also losing members at a high rate -- from resignations, injuries and other reasons.  In July, the U.S. Defense Department reported that in March, deaths and injuries of Afghan troops grew to more than 300 a month.

阿富汗军队在国际军队中的安全地位越来越高。但安全部队的成员损失率也很高——来自辞职、受伤和其他原因。7 月,美国国防部报告称 3 月份阿富汗军队伤亡率上升到每月 300 多人。

Afghanistan expert Kate Clark says that, as of September, Afghan security forces were dying at the rate of 100 per week.

阿富汗专家 Kate Clark 说,9 月份为止到阿富汗安全部队的死亡率达每周 100 人。

I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.

You are listening to As It Is from VOA Learning English.

Now here again is Caty Weaver with a report from VOA’s Ayaz Gul in Islamabad on the state of relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Some Progress in Relations Between Afghanistan and Pakistan

阿富汗和巴基斯坦关系的一些进展

Pakistan and Afghanistan continue to disagree on many important issues.  But they also reported progress in 2013 on efforts to improve their relations.  Experts say the two nations must cooperate closely to end the Afghan war as NATO prepares to end its combat operations there.

巴基斯坦和阿富汗在很多重要问题上仍存在分歧。但 2013 年它们在改善关系方面也有所进展。专家表示,这两个国家必须密切合作来结束阿富汗的战争,因为北约组织准备结束在这里的作战行动。

Pakistan’s reported links to Taliban forces in Afghanistan have caused great tension between the two governments.  The tension began as soon as the Islamist group was ousted from power in 2001.

巴基斯坦被指与阿富汗塔利班武装有关联,这引发了两个政府的关系的极大紧张。紧张局势在 2001 年罢黜该伊斯兰教组织之后就出现了。

Many Afghans say Pakistan supports some militant groups in Afghanistan in order to hold some influence in the country after international forces leave.  Pakistani leaders have repeatedly denied the accusation.

很多阿富汗人指出巴基斯坦支持阿富汗的一些武装组织,以此在国际军队撤离后保持对该国家的影响。巴基斯坦领导人反复否认这项指控。

Humayun Shah Asefi is a top Afghan opposition politician.

Humayun Shah Asefi 是阿富汗反对派的高级政客。

“We must try both of us, to evaluate our relations to have some trust building measures but some people must not think that Afghanistan is the backyard of Pakistan.  They must recognize that Afghanistan is a sovereign state.”

“我们双方都必须努力提升我们的关系,提出一些建立信任的举措,但一些人也不能认为阿富汗就是巴基斯坦的后花园。他们必须承认阿富汗的独立主权。”

Like Pakistan, Afghanistan’s central government struggles to control parts of its territory.  For years, Afghanistan has accused Pakistani officials of permitting militants to launch attacks across the border into Afghanistan.  This year, Pakistan accused Afghanistan of such action.

像巴基斯坦一样,阿富汗中央政府也在努力控制自己的领土。多年来,阿富汗指责巴基斯坦官员放任武装力量在阿富汗边界发动袭击。今年,巴基斯坦也指责阿富汗有这样的行为。

President Hamid Karzai spoke about the issue on Pakistani television in June.  He admitted that anti-Pakistani militants operate on Afghan territory.  But he also said it was not his fault.

总统哈米德•卡尔扎伊 6 月在巴基斯坦电视台谈论了这个问题。他承认有反巴基斯坦武装出现在阿富汗的领土。但他也说这不是他的错。

“Yes they are there.  Yes they are there because of war created against Afghanistan by the establishment in Pakistan.  This is the consequence of the activities from across the Durand Line in Pakistan towards Afghanistan.”

“是的,有这种情况,但这是因为巴基斯坦当权派针对阿富汗发动的战争。这是巴基斯坦和阿富汗杜兰德线上活动人士的共识。”

The Durand Line is the 2,500-kilometer-long mountainous border between the two countries.  Since last year, Pakistan has fired thousands of artillery shells over that line into Afghanistan.  Pakistan says it is targeting militant bases.

杜兰德线是两个国家之间的一条 2500 公里长的山界线。从去年起,巴基斯坦越过这条线发射数千枚炸弹到阿富汗境内。巴基斯坦称它的目标是军事基地。

Pakistani Senator Afrasiab Khattak says the lawless border areas are a problem.

巴基斯坦参议员 Afrasiab Khattak 说,非法的边境区域是个问题。

“The real issue is not border management.  The real issue is sourcing out borders to militants…I think we have to stop this.”

“真正的问题不是边界管理。真正的问题是以武力决定边界。我认为我们应该停止这么做。”

Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was elected in June.  Since then, Afghan officials have welcomed Pakistan’s moves to free militants who could be helpful in peace talks with the Taliban.

巴基斯坦总理纳瓦兹•谢里夫在 6 月当选。从那时起,阿富汗官员就赞扬巴基斯坦释放武装分子的举动,这对与塔利班和平谈判有帮助。

Mr. Sharif visited Afghanistan recently and said peace in Pakistan is closely linked to a secure Afghanistan.

谢里夫近期访问了阿富汗并表示巴基斯坦的和平与阿富汗的安全密切相关。

“We have stood by Afghanistan, we will continue to stand by Afghanistan and we have no favorites in Afghanistan.  Our favorite of course is the people of Afghanistan.”

“我们站在阿富汗这边,我们会继续站在阿富汗这边,我们并非偏爱阿富汗,而是关怀阿富汗的人民。”

Pakistani officials worry about possible disorder in Afghanistan after NATO troops withdraw.

巴基斯坦官员对北约军队撤离后阿富汗可能出现的混乱表示担心。

And that’s all the time we have today.

I’m Caty Weaver. Thanks for listening.