Hello, and welcome to As It Is from VOA Learning English. I’m Mario Ritter in Washington.
Today on the program, we report on Nigeria’s continuing struggle to end the attacks from the militant group Boko Haram.
“I hereby declare a State of Emergency in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states.”
But first, we take you to Egypt, a country working to create stability after almost three years of protests and violence.
不过首先，我们来到埃及。在近 3 年的抗议和暴动后，这个国家正在努力开创稳定局面。
“This is a nation that has been pushed to the brink and as long as these issues are not addressed, there will be a third and fourth and a fifth uprising.”
The struggle for peace in Egypt and Nigeria. That is the subject of our program today.
Will the Egypt Settle Political Differences in 2014?
埃及能否在 2014 年解决政治分歧？
Egyptian leaders continue to struggle to calm their nation. But unhappiness with the country’s current rulers appears to be growing. June Simms has this report.
In 2013, Egyptians protested in large numbers and forced their leader out of office. It was the second large uprising in two years.
The protestors were helped by the military, which imprisoned the country’s first freely-elected president -- Islamist Mohamed Morsi. The army also took action against his supporters.
The current military-supported government has offered a plan for stability -- a new constitution to be voted on by Egyptians, followed by elections for president and parliament.
Until recently, many Egyptians supported their new leaders, who had promised to keep the Muslim Brotherhood political party of Mr. Morsi from taking part in the elections. Wael Khalil is an activist and well-known blogger.
到最近为止，很多埃及人支持他们的新领袖，他承诺不让穆尔西的政党穆斯林兄弟会参与选举。Wael Khalil 是一位活动人士和知名博主。
“Getting Morsi back in power is not an outcome -- is not a probable outcome -- so that we are now looking with more scrutiny at those in power.”
Anti-government protesters now include more than Mr. Morsi's supporters. Many activists oppose the strong government and police answers to protests. Mr. Khalil said the protestors thought those severe moves had ended in 2011.
现在，反对政府的抗议者不仅包括穆尔西的支持者。很多活动人士反对政府和警方对抗议者的强硬。Khalil 说，抗议者本以为这种过激举动在 2011 年就结束了。
“More and more people are starting to see, first of all, the return of the police state and how the police is really coming back with a vengeance.”
There is also unhappiness about the economy. Unemployment, lack of tourism and investment, plus inflation -- especially in the price of food -- are hurting many Egyptians.
Protestors in the 2011 revolution demanded “bread, freedom, dignity.” Political analyst Hisham Kassem says those demands continue to be made.
2011 年革命中的抗议者要求“面包、自由、尊严”。政治分析家 Hisham Kassem 说，这些要求仍然成立。
“This is a nation that has been pushed to the brink and as long as these issues are not addressed, there will be a third and fourth and a fifth uprising. It’s not going to stop, and whether it is the military or the Islamists, whoever is now on the seat needs to deliver.”
But not everyone thinks everything in Egypt is going badly.
Saad Eddin Ibrahim is the chairman of the Ibn Khaldun Center for Development Studies. He says protests take time to work.
Saad Eddin Ibrahim 是伊本•赫勒敦发展研究中心主席。他说，抗议生效需要时间。
“There is always a decade or so around in the revolutionary explosion before the volcano settles down and the ashes settle.”
“从革命爆发到尘埃落定，总归要有 10 年左右的时间。”
He says it will not take that long for Egypt to become calm. He says that may happen in another year. He believes people are tired of revolution. But that is not what protestors in the streets are saying.
I’m June Simms.
You are listening to As It Is, a program designed to help you learn to speak, read and write American English.
Nigeria’s Fight Against Terrorist Group Boko Haram Goes On
This year was supposed to have been the last for Boko Haram. The Islamist terrorist group has been attacking people in northern Nigeria for four years. Thousands of troops were sent to three northeastern states to fight the group, but the violence continues and the area is still under emergency rule. Here is Christopher Cruise.
今年本该是博科圣地的最后一年。这个伊斯兰教恐怖组织在尼日利亚北部侵扰民众 4 年。数千部队被派遣到西北三个州与该组织作战，但暴力冲突仍在继续，该地区仍处于紧急状态。
In May, Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan said Boko Haram was getting stronger. It had captured territories and was continuing its attacks, assassinations and kidnappings. It was seen by President Jonathan as a declaration of war on Nigeria.
“I hereby declare a State of Emergency in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. Accordingly, the Chief of Defense Staff has been directed to immediately deploy more troops to these states for more effective internal security operations.”
It was Nigeria’s largest offensive against Boko Haram. In the first six months of the state of emergency, the military took control of northern cities, but attacks continued in rural areas.
这是尼日利亚对博科圣地的最大攻势。在紧急状态的前 6 个月，军方控制了北部城市，但农村地区的袭击仍然存在。
Army spokesman Colonel Muhammad Dole said the military has cut the supplies of the group:
“We were also able to cut most of their supplies so the attack on villages so the attack on villages is a desperation so they can survive. They do not have food. They do not have water.”
Colonel Dole said some members of the group fled to neighboring countries.
In November, the United States called Boko Haram and a linked group called Ansaru foreign terrorist organizations. Emergency rule was then put in place for another six months.
11 月，美国将博科圣地和相关组织安萨鲁称作外国恐怖组织。紧急状态因此又延长了 6 个月。
Two weeks later people in Maiduguri -- the original home of the insurgency -- said they felt safe for the first time in years. Dauda Tatally owns a small computer supply shop in Maiduguri.
两周后，迈杜古里（暴乱发源地）的民众称他们这些年第一次感到安全。Dauda Tatally 在迈杜古里有一家小型电脑供应商店。
“Since then, we did not hear of any insurgents, any cheating around. So we can say life is better now.”
But in early December, Maiduguri no longer felt safe. Militants attacked the Air Force, the Army and the Police.
但在 12 月初，迈杜古里不再安全。武装组织袭击了空军、陆军和警察。
The military told everyone to stay in their houses both day and night, a 24-hour curfew. The attackers destroyed an army post and a police base. Many cars and oil trucks were burned.
Human Rights Watch says Boko Haram has killed thousands of people in the past four years. But it says strong answers to the attacks by security forces have killed hundreds more.
人权观察指出，博科圣地在过去 4 年杀害了数千人。但它表示，安全部队对这些袭击的强势反击也造成了数百人死亡。
Researcher Eric Guttschuss says violence between members of different communities has also killed thousands of people in past four years. He says the government’s failure to imprison attackers is giving strength to the Boko Haram crisis.
研究人员 Eric Guttschuss 说，不同社区成员之间的冲突在过去 4 年杀害了数千人。他说，政府让袭击者逍遥法外，这助长了博科圣地危机。
“One of reasons to that they have used to justify these attacks is to say ‘When Muslims were attacked in Plateau State, for example, those who carried out the attacks, nothing happened to them and the government turned a blind eye.’”
More violence between religious, political and tribal groups is expected next year before Nigeria’s 2015 presidential elections.
预计，宗教组织、政治团体和部落之间将在明年的 2015 年尼日利亚总统选举之前发生更多冲突。
The Nigerian military says it continues to fight Boko Haram and kill members of the group in gun battles and air raids.
But in rural areas of northern Nigeria, people are still being killed, homes are still being burned and people still live in fear.
I’m Christopher Cruise.
And that’s our program for today. It was written by Christopher Cruise from reports by Elizabeth Arrott in Cairo and Heather Murdock in Maiduguri.
You can tell us what you want to hear on a future show. You can also go to our website -- www.voanews.cn. Thank you for spending some of your time with us today.