Hello, again, welcome back, and happy new year. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Today we go in search of killers. Not the kind with guns and knives, but those with very sharp teeth. The kind that swim in the ocean. They have names like “Great White” and “Tiger.”
Then we are off to the fair, a maker’s fair. There are no rides and popcorn and clowns, but it is a lot of fun. Would you like to make a robot, or some other thing that would make your science teacher proud? Then stay with us. You can even learn how to improve your American English at the same time with “As It Is” on VOA.
Officials in Western Australia have ordered fishermen to catch and kill sharks over three meters long. The order followed the deaths of two people who were surfing - riding the waves on a surfboard. The deaths made a total of six deadly shark attacks in Western Australia during the past two years.
西澳官员下令渔民猎杀 3 米以上的鲨鱼。该指令是在两名冲浪者（用冲浪板逐浪的人）遇害之后下达的。这场事故使过去两年西澳鲨鱼致死的数量增加到 6 人。
In reaction, the state government is creating safety zones in waters around the city of Perth and along popular coastal areas to the south. Officials say sharks seen in those waters will be considered an immediate danger to surfers and swimmers, and will be killed.
Commercial fishermen will be paid to hunt for and kill sharks bigger than three meters in the restricted areas. The fishermen will be adding food to their hooked lines to catch smaller shark.
商业渔民在禁区猎杀超过 3 米的鲨鱼可以得到报酬。渔民在鱼线上添加食物，捕捉较小的鲨鱼。
Troy Buswell is Western Australia’s fisheries minister. He says the measures will make coastal areas safer for people using the water. He says the new measures are not meant to reduce the population of the animals.
Troy Buswell 是西澳渔业部长。他说，这些政策将使沿海居民的用水更安全。他表示，这些新政策并非刻意减少这种生物的数量。
“This response does not represent what you would call a culling of sharks. It is our view that it is a targeted, hazard-mitigation strategy. In other words, removing the shark hazard (danger), or attempting to remove the shark hazard from where they present the greatest danger to the public…”
Tourism businesses in Western Australia have welcomed the policy of catch and kill. They say many visitors have decided to stay away from coastal areas in the southwestern corner of the country after the most recent attack.
A large shark killed surfer Chris Boyd near the community of Gracetown. The attacker was thought to be a great white shark. Other surfboard riders have said reducing the number of big sharks in the area would decrease the threat of further attacks.
在格雷斯镇社区附近，一头大鲨鱼杀害了冲浪的 Chris Boyd。行凶者被指是一头大白鲨。其他冲浪者表示，减少该区域的大鲨鱼能够减少进一步的伤亡。
But the Greens Party offered a measure in the Australian Senate for the federal government to oppose the killing of sharks off the nation’s west coast. The measure says more research is needed before any catch-and-kill policy is enacted.
Environmentalists say that protected species such as the great white shark should not be hunted and killed. Greens Party members say swimmers and surfers should understand that they enter the water at their own risk.
Also in Australia, the state government in New South Wales is investigating the use of aircraft to search coastal waters for sharks. It began the investigation after a surfer died at Coffs Harbor, north of Sydney. In that incident, a 19-year-old man died after an attack by a three-meter long tiger shark.
同样在澳大利亚，新南威尔士州政府正在研究使用飞行器搜索存在鲨鱼的沿海区域。这项研究是在悉尼北部考弗斯港的一位冲浪者遇害后发动的。在这场事故中，一名 19 岁男子被一条 3 米长的虎鲨袭击致死。
We're Off To A Different Kind Of Fair
If you like to make things -- especially things that involve science -- then you might like to attend a Maker Faire. You say you have never heard of one? Well, you are in luck. Caty Weaver joins us with everything you will need to know.
Maker Faires are held every year in different cities around the world. The recent one in New York City had hectares of colorful demonstration tables, science-based games, performance stages and “play islands.”
Eleven-year-old Genevieve Beatty, her 13-year-old sister, Camille, and their father Robert stood proudly next to a robot. It was a model of a Mars lander, about a meter and a half high. Genevieve says they built it themselves.
11 岁的 Genevieve Beatty、她 13 岁的姐姐 Camille，以及她们的父亲 Robert 骄傲地站在一个机器人旁边。这是一个火星探测器模型，大约 1.5m 高。Genevieve 说，这是他们自己做的。
“Most of the ones that we built roll, like they have wheels, and some crawl and a few fly. It’s just fun to work with my dad and my sister. I do all the, like, inside, like the electronics and like soldering.”
Robert Beatty says Genevieve’s sister, Camille, had a natural interest in mechanical things. She would take apart household machines to understand how they worked. Robert, Camille and Genevieve began building items with transistors and LED lights. Before long, the two girls asked to build a robot.
Robert Beatty 说 ， Genevieve 的姐姐 Camille 对机械有一种天生的兴趣。她会拆解家用电器来了解它们的工作原理。于是 Robert、Camille 和 Genevieve 开始用晶体管和 LED 灯制作物件。不久以后，这两个女孩想要做一个机器人。
“And that was pretty scary, but I thought, OK, if we really do a lot of research we will be able to figure out how to do it. So we just started learning on YouTube and various websites and trying to construct a little robot.”
“这是很困难的，不过我想，好吧，如果我们真的做足研究的话，应该可以找到方法。因此我们就开始在 YouTube 和各种网站上学习，并试着制作小型机器人。”
In two years, the family has made nearly 35 robots, including several that science museums asked them to build. But Robert says the main point is fun, family and education.
2 年时间里，这家人制作了将近 35 台机器人，包括一些科技馆要求他们做的。但是 Robert 说，重点是快乐、家庭和教育。
“I often don’t know the subject of what we’re trying to learn, but we learn it together, or I teach it to them and then they do all the work. And that way they stay super engaged. As soon as I take over and try to do it myself, that’s boring, and they go off and do something else. So the key is to get them to do the work themselves.”
Three-dimensional printing was one of the most-popular areas of this year’s Maker Faire in New York. At one booth, a young designer named Todd Blatt sold brightly-colored jewelry that he made with software and nylon powder.
三维打印是今年纽约制汇节的热门领域之一。在一个摊位上，一位年轻设计师 Todd Blatt 正在出售他用软件和尼龙粉末制作的光彩夺目的珠宝。
“I focused on designs that couldn’t be made with traditional manufacturing methods. So I have things that are linked together with no seams and metal pieces that are 3-D-printed in shapes that you couldn’t make molds out of. So it is really exciting to make these things that couldn’t exist otherwise.”
“我关注的是那些不能通过传统手工方法制作的设计。所以我有一些和焊接与金属件无关的东西，不能通过制作模具，而是 3D 打印成形。能制作那些本来不会存在的东西，这真的很让人振奋。”
He uses software to draw the object he wants. Then he sends the design to a 3-D printer. It melts the nylon powder with a laser and builds the physical object one thin layer at a time.
他用软件绘制他想要的物体，然后将该设计发送到 3D 打印机。它用激光把尼龙粉末熔化，每次制作该物体的一个薄层。
“You can make products or you can make earrings, jewelry and movie prop replicas and clothing accessories -- anything you want!”
Not everyone at the Maker Faire is high-tech. A group based in Brooklyn, New York called “The Fixer’s Collective” had a table. Vincent Lai showed people how to repair a toaster and rewire a lamp.
制汇节上并不是所有的都是高科技。一个来自纽约布鲁克林的组织 The Fixer’s Collective 也有一个摊位。Vincent Lai 向人们展示了如何修理烤箱，以及为灯泡换灯丝。
“And we feel very comfortable being here because we also believe that fixing and repair is a strong part of the making process. Because as you create, and as you shape, and as you whittle and scrape, you’re gonna run into roadblocks. And so that’s when your fixing skills need to come into play.”
That sounds like fun. Our thanks to Caty Weaver for telling us all about a maker’s faire. And thank you for spending some time with “As It Is” on this first Thursday of the new year. There are more Learning English programs headed your way just seconds from now. And, of course, you can catch up on all the news from around the world at the beginning of the hour on VOA. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington.