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[翻译]新闻传真 - 动物向人类传播的疾病增多

来源:慢速英语   时间:2014-01-08 12:48:54

Hello, and welcome to As It Is from VOA Learning English.

I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.

Today on the program, we report on efforts by doctors in Kenya to end trachoma, an infectious eye disease that causes blindness.

在今天的节目里,我们报道肯尼亚医生努力防治一种会引发失明的眼部传染性疾病——沙眼。

“When I decided to go for the eye surgery, I was worried and uncomfortable.  I thought after the surgery I would not see again.  But now it’s the opposite -- I am confident, happy and I can do my work well.”

“当我决定进行眼部手术的时候,我非常担心和不安。我想,手术后我可能就再也看不到了。但现在,情况相反——我很自信、快乐,并可以顺利完成工作。”

But first, we report on a warning from the United Nations that more diseases are now spreading from animals to humans.

不过首先,我们报道一个来自联合国的警告:动物向人类传播的疾病在增加。

“I think that if we continue the state of play, we’ll only see more diseases emerge, more natural resources disappear, and more threats to the human health into the food chain.”

“我认为如果这种现状继续下去,只会有更多疾病出现、更多自然资源消失、更多人类健康威胁进入食物链。”

Fighting the spread of diseases in Kenya and throughout the world -- that is today’s subject on As It Is.

FAO: Spread of Diseases from Animals to Humans Increasing

FAO: 动物向人类传播的疾病增多

About 70 percent of the new diseases that have infected humans in recent years have come from animals.  The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization -- or FAO -- says more diseases are moving from animals to humans as the Earth’s population grows and the time and distance from when the food is harvested to when it is eaten increases.

近年来,人类新感染疾病大约 70%来自动物。联合国粮食及农业组织(FAO)称,随着全球人口增加,以及从粮食收成到食用的时间和距离增加,动物传播给人类的疾病越来越多。

Caty Weaver reports.

The FAO recently released a report called “World Livestock 2013: Changing Disease Landscapes.”

FAO 最近发布了《2013 年世界畜牧业:不断变化的疾病形式》。

Juan Lubroth is the chief officer of animal medicine at the agency.

胡安•卢布罗斯是该机构动物医学部门的高级官员。

“I think that if we continue the state of play, we’ll only see more diseases emerge, more natural resources disappear, and more threats to the human health into the food chain.”

“我认为如果这种现状继续下去,只会有更多疾病出现、更多自然资源消失、更多人类健康威胁进入食物链。”

Dr. Lubroth says humans are coming in contact with new diseases as they explore more parts of the world.

卢布罗斯说,随着人类探索到世界的更多地方,他们不断接触到新的疾病。

“We are encroaching into habitats that previously we as humans did not really know -- those ecological niches were occupied by other species, but we are invading them.”

“我们渐渐接触到一些人类以前不知道的栖息地——这些生态位被其他物种占据,而我们则在侵入它们。”

Dr. Lubroth says poor healthcare and human waste systems increase the risk of disease -- especially in areas where people do not have much money.  And he says as the number of people on the planet increases, so does the number of livestock -- which causes problems.

卢布罗斯说,医保不善和人类垃圾系统增加了疾病风险——尤其是在比较贫困的地区。他还表示,随着地球人口的增加,牲畜数量也在增加——而这带来了问题。

“As we intensify livestock production, we have created, let’s say, a monoculture.  By using antibiotics, for example, as growth promoters or antibiotics without the supervision of qualified personnel, we do allow for disease-resistant organisms to go throughout the herd or throughout the community.  And this can, at the end, affect human health.”

随着我们加强畜牧生产,我们制造了一种‘单一培养’。比如,使用抗生素,因为促生剂和抗生素没有得到质检部门的监督,我们就造成了抗药有机体在牲畜和人群中传播,而这最终会影响人类的健康。

Dr. Lubroth says some diseases that have moved from animals to humans have caused the deaths of millions of people.

卢布罗斯说,一些从动物传播给人类的疾病引起了数百万人死亡。

“The origin of the human immunodeficiency virus -- HIV, which causes AIDS -- probably had its precursor in something that we know today to be simian -- or monkey -- immunodeficiency virus.  And then even more recently, we have the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, which is caused by a corona virus -- which likely has an animal origin.  We are at the point in research which we still are trying to find out what origin that is.”

“引发艾滋病的人体免疫缺损病毒 HIV 的起源可能就是我们所知的类人猿——或猴子——免疫缺损病毒。而更近期的中东呼吸系统综合症,它是由一种冠状病毒引起的,后者可能也有动物源,而我们目前的研究就是找到这种源。”

He says other diseases that have moved from animals to humans in the past five to ten years include the Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are usually found in bats.  And, of course, there is bird flu.

他说,过去 5~10 年,动物传播给人类的疾病还包括尼帕病毒和亨德拉病毒,它们通常存在于蝙蝠体内。当然,还有禽流感。

“Probably more familiar to your readers or listeners will be the H5N1 Avian influenza, which in 2003 spread in Southeast Asia and by 2006 was present in over 60 countries and territories.”

“也许对你们的读者和听众来说,更熟悉的是 H5N1 型禽流感病毒,它 2003 年从东南亚开始传播,到 2006 年,已在超过 60 个国家和地区出现。”

The FAO is calling for groups of experts to work together to fight the growing disease threat.  Scientists, researchers, doctors and other experts from many different areas of science and medicine would work with one another and share any discoveries.

FAO 呼吁专家团队共同抗击不断增加的疾病威胁。科学家、研究人员、医生,以及来自不同科学和医学领域的其他专家将齐心协力,分享自己的成果。

The FAO report says this approach could help reduce poverty and reduce biological threats caused by globalization and climate change.  It could also lead to better safety and health measures in livestock production.

这份 FAO 报告称,这种方法可以减少贫困、减少由全球化和气候变化带来的生物威胁。它还能够给畜牧业带来更好的安全和健康措施。

I’m Caty Weaver.

You are listening to As It Is, a program designed to help you learn to speak, read and write American English.

Now once again here is Christopher Cruise, with a report on medical workers in Kenya who are trying to stop the spread of a disease that causes blindness…

Thanks Caty.

Kenyan Doctors Work to End Trachoma by 2020

肯尼亚医生致力于在 2020 年消除沙眼

Health care workers in Kenya say more than 60,000 people in the east African nation are living with trachoma.  The infectious eye disease causes blindness if it is not treated early.  VOA visited a Kenyan village where medical workers are trying to stop a spread of the disease.

肯尼亚医务人员称,东非国家有 6 万多人患有沙眼。如不能得到早期治疗,这种传染性眼部疾病会引发失明。VOA 造访了一个肯尼亚村庄,那里的医务人员在努力阻止该疾病传播。

Kajiado is a village in a rural area of southern Kenya. A local anti-trachoma worker teaches a group of women how to stop the disease and how to treat it.  Lester Mortai is well-known in this area for his work fighting trachoma.  He often travels through villages, teaching people the best ways to avoid getting the painful disease.

喀贾多是肯尼亚南部农村地区的村庄。当地一位防治沙眼工作者教一些妇女防止、治疗这种疾病。Lester Mortai 因防治沙眼的工作而在当地知名。他经常穿梭在村子里,教人们避免这种疾病的最好办法。

“Visit those homesteads and tell people to go to, to prevent diseases by having their own initiative, to have that facial cleanliness -- those without trachoma and even those with trachoma.”

“拜访这些家庭,告诉人们自发地预防疾病、进行面部清洁——那些没有患沙眼的人,甚至还有患沙眼的人。”

Trachoma is caused by bacteria, and is spread by touching the infected eye or nose of a person who already has it.  In developing countries, flies often spread the disease.

沙眼是细菌引起的,通过接触患者受感染的眼睛或鼻子传播。在发展中国家,苍蝇通常也传播该疾病。

The African Medical and Research Foundation -- or AMREF -- says more than 7,000 people in Kajiado suffer from trachoma.  People who have the disease suffer from painful swelling of the eyelid and scarring of the outer area of the eye -- called the cornea.

非洲医学和研究基金会(AMREF)称,喀贾多有 7000 多人患沙眼。这种疾病的患者会出现眼睑肿痛,以及角膜(眼球外部区域)创伤。

Ngeyan Nge has a bad case of trachoma.  She will have surgery to keep her from going blind.

Ngeyan Nge 患有严重沙眼。她将通过手术避免自己失明。

“I am hopeful about the future, even though in the beginning I was opposed to the surgery.  I’ve changed my mind after continuous advice from people.”

“我对未来充满希望,即使一开始我反对手术。在获得别人不断的建议后,我改变了想法。”

John Soine works for AMREF.  He travels to rural areas of Kenya to do surgery on people with severe cases of trachoma.

John Soine 在 AMREF 工作。他来到肯尼亚的农村地区,为严重的沙眼患者做手术。

“So if these people with active infection are not treated, they end up developing complications whereby the eyelashes start facing inwards and start rubbing on the eyeball.  And at this stage one may lose vision.  And the loss of vision in trachoma is irreversible.”

“如果这些沙眼患者得不到治疗,他们最终会出现睫毛内向、眼球摩擦的并发症。而到了这个阶段,人们就可能会失明。而沙眼引起的失明是不能恢复的。”

Kadogo Salaash had almost lost her vision to the disease more than five years ago. Like Ngeyan Nge, she was at first not sure surgery could help her.

Kadogo Salaash 在 5 年多前差点因为沙眼而失明。像 Ngeyan Nge 一样,她一开始并不确定手术能够帮她。

“When I decided to go for the eye surgery I was worried and uncomfortable. I thought after the surgery I would not see again.  But now it’s the opposite -- I’m confident, happy and can do my work well.”

“当我决定进行眼部手术的时候,我非常担心和不安。我想,手术后我可能就再也看不到了。但现在,情况相反——我很自信、快乐,并可以顺利完成工作。”

With this kind of medical help -- and campaigns to educate people about trachoma in schools and in poorer communities -- Kenyan medical officials hope to greatly reduce the number of trachoma cases.  They hope they can end it throughout the country by 2020.

有了这些医疗救助——以及学校和贫困社区宣传防治沙眼的活动——肯尼亚卫生官员希望能够大幅减少沙眼病例。他们希望能够在 2020 年在全国消除该疾病。

And that’s our program for today.  It was written in Special English from reports by Joe De Capua in Washington and Mohammed Yusuf in Kajaido, Kenya.

I’m Christopher Cruise reporting from VOA Learning English headquarters in Washington.