From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is. I’m Steve Ember.
Farming in Africa is our subject today, as we explore issues faced by women farmers in Cameroon. And later, we hear about a program designed to protect crops from disease and pests in Uganda and other African countries.
We begin our program today by exploring farming in Africa.
We visit some African women who till the soil – and also work for progress toward better lives. The women face denial of land and hostile cultural traditions as well as the usual struggles with nature.
Let’s look in on a farm in Cameroon that a man seized from his sister.
Experts estimate that women farmers produce about 90 percent of the food in Africa. The United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization says two-thirds of African women work in agriculture.
专家估计，非洲约 90%粮食都由女性农民生产。联合国粮食和农业组织称，2/3 非洲妇女从事农业工作。
Activists for these farmers met recently in Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon. Their goal was to develop ways of making jobs in agriculture more profitable.
Adamu Maino is busy raising cows in North West Cameroon. He takes care of the animals on a piece of family land he seized from his sister, Maimonatou Aisha. By farming on this land, he was following cultural traditions.
Adamu Maino 在喀麦隆西北部忙于奶牛养殖。他在自家所有的土地上饲养这些动物，这片土地是从他妹妹 Maimonatou Aisha 那里抢来的。能够这样占有这片土地，是有文化传统的。
But leaders of an African women farmers’ association went there to urge Maimonatou Aisha to continue her struggle to recover the land.
但某非洲妇女农民协会的领导者来到那里，敦促 Maimonatou Aisha 努力拿回这片土地。
“Move on women, move on, women. These are the changing times. Move a little closer when the change is coming. Move on women. Move on.”
Activist Veronica Kini sings a song that calls women to “move on” in their search for progress.
活动人士 Veronica Kini 唱了一首歌，呼吁女性在寻求进步的道路上“前进”。
“You do not expect a woman who has been cultivating a piece of land for 30 years, and just because she is a woman, she has no right to own that piece of land. They say she is a woman, she will be married to a different family, so she has no right to own the piece of land.”
你们不会想到，一个女性在一块土地上耕作了 30 年，但就因为她是女性，就无权拥有这块土地。他们说，她是女性，她会嫁到别人家，所以她无权拥有这块土地。
Maimonatou Aisha is one of millions of African women farmers who struggle with problems like getting bank loans.
Maimonatou Aisha 是数百万面临银行贷款问题的非洲女性农民之一。
Simadana Elizabeth was born in Mali. She says these problems are similar across the continent.
Simadana Elizabeth 出生于马里。她说，这些问题在整个非洲都很类似。
“Most of us do not own land. When you go to financial institutions, the banks, when you want to access credits, they ask for land titles. And again you find that most women do not own the titles. So it is a common challenge and we need to get a solution for it.”
Ms. Elizabeth says many women farmers still use old tools and farming methods.
“We have not mechanized the way we do our work, so you find that we use what is commonly known as hoes to do our work. We don’t have a voice, we never get time to come out with one voice and solve our personal problems.”
The Food and Agriculture Organization considers women farmers the pillar, or main support, of African agriculture. In addition to providing most food grown in Africa, they must prepare food for their families.
Alice Kwanjani was born in Kenya. She says many women there are powerless.
Alice Kwanjani 出生在肯尼亚。她说，很多女性都没有权力。
“Women are not expected to stand out in the presence of men, so we feel that they cannot express themselves properly. “
She says women are responsible for most of the activities in the home and even in some communities, like taking care of the children and the sick. Women also take care of such events as funerals and wedding parties.
For three days in Cameroon, the women farmers’ groups examined the difficulties that they believe interfere with progress.
在喀麦隆的这 3 天时间，女性农民组织调查了一些影响进展的难题。
Among their concerns are longtime problems that governments do little to solve. Veronica Kini says the reason is inertia -- a lack of movement.
这些组织所担心的包括一些政府长期无法解决的问题。Veronica Kini 称，原因在于一种惯性——运动的缺乏。
“We have been saying this over and over again. Can you imagine a women of, let’s say 50 years of age, carrying a bag of around 50 kilograms on the head, crossing a bridge that is not well constructed…I think it is deplorable. We need tractors, we need harvesters. They know what we need.”
“我们一直反复这么说。你可以想象，比如一个 50 岁的妇女，头顶着大约 50 公斤的袋子，走过建造不善的桥……我认为这很可叹。我们需要拖拉机，我们需要收割机。他们知道我们需要什么。”
The women at the conference agreed to work to help other women gain a better understanding of their rights. Elizabeth Atanganan is president of the farmers’ network for Central Africa. She says this can happen through training. She says the goal is to help women learn to start defending their interests.
与会女性同意帮助其他女性更好地认识自己的权利。Elizabeth Atanganan 是中非农民关系网络的主席。她说，这可以通过培训实现。她说，目标在于帮助女性学习维护自己的利益。
Simadana Elizabeth also called for action. She said the time to act is now.
Simadana Elizabeth 还呼吁行动。她说，现在就是应该行动的时候了。
Next, we’ll hear about efforts to save plants from destruction. It’s As It Is from VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember.
A program to save crops from pests and disease…
Crop disease continues to be a problem for farmers everywhere. The non-profit Center for Agriculture and Biosciences International says pests and diseases destroy up to 40 percent of the food grown worldwide. The center, based in Britain, is trying to change that with a crop protection program. Avi Arditti tells us more.
The program is called Plantwise. In the past three years, Plantwise has trained almost 1,000 so-called plant doctors in 24 countries.
这个计划叫做“植物智慧”。过去 3 年，植物智慧在 24 个国家培训了将近 1000 名所谓的植物医生。
One of those countries is Uganda. Recently, plant doctor Daniel Lyazi set up a table under a small tent during market day in Mukono. The village is about 15 kilometers from Kampala, the capital. People brought samples of diseased plants to his clinic. One farmer brought cabbage covered in slime. Nothing can be done to save his cabbages this year. But Daniel Lyazi's advice may save the next season’s crop.
其中一个国家是乌干达。最近，植物医生 Daniel Lyazi 在穆科诺集日上摆了一个帐篷和桌子。这个村子离首都坎帕拉大约 15 公里。人们把染病害的植物带到他的诊所。一个农民带来了一颗沾满粘液的卷心菜。今年，他的卷心菜已经无法挽救了。但 Daniel Lyazi 建议，可以挽救下个季度的作物。
“So he told me there’s a small caterpillar which eats [the cabbages] starting from the youngest leaf. He’s telling me that the whole garden has been attacked and affected by this caterpillar. I know that it’s a diamondback moth.”
The farmer has been using an insecticide, but Mr. Lyazi says the chemical is the wrong one.
这位农民一直在使用一种杀虫剂，但 Lyazi 认为这种化学药物不对症。
“So I’m recommending him to use another insecticide and I’m telling him in another planting season he should plant with onions. Onions can repel [the caterpillar] and he can get income.”
He advises the farmer to plant onions between the rows of cabbages as an additional measure of protection.
The clinic lasts about three hours. In that time Daniel Lyazi advises about 20 farmers. The clinic takes place twice a month. It started last year.
这个诊所每次 3 个小时。在这段时间内，Daniel Lyazi 会给大约 20 位农民建议。该诊所每个月有两次，是去年开始的。
The Plantwise program says there are now about 90 of these clinics in Uganda. This year donors spent close to $300,000 training plant doctors and expanding the system in the country.
植物智慧计划指出，乌干达现在有大约 90 家这种诊所。今年，捐赠者花将近 30 万美元培训植物医生，并在全国拓展该体系。
Joseph Mulema coordinates the Plantwise program in Uganda and Zambia. He argues that plant clinics are a far more effective way to get advice to farmers than the traditional model. In the traditional model, agricultural extension workers visit farms.
Joseph Mulema 负责植物智慧计划在乌干达和赞比亚的协调工作。他认为，植物诊所相比于传统模式是农民获得建议的有效方法。传统模式就是农业推广人员到访各个农场。
“Plant clinics can help so many farmers in a very short time. In fact, more farmers are seen in a plant clinic session, if good mobilization was done.”
Robert Karyeija is a crop protection officer for the government. He says training plant doctors has been very important. This is because even though there were thousands of agricultural extension workers, they just did not know enough.
Robert Karyeija 是政府的农作物保护官员。他说，培训植物医生很重要，这是因为即使有数千名农业推广人员，他们也无法了解足够知识。
“They would be general agriculturalists who knew agronomy but didn’t know much about pests and diseases.”
Since 2010, the Center for Agriculture and Biosciences International has set up Plantwise clinics in 12 African countries. I’m Avi Arditti.
从 2010 年起，农业和生物科学国际中心在 12 个非洲国家开办了植物智慧诊所。
As It Is is a production of VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember. Thanks for joining us. We’ll see you next time.