Hello, and welcome to As It Is from VOA Learning English.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Today we report from Africa on how the continent is dealing with the growing threat of terrorism.
“We also need to fight the causes of radicalization: poverty, a sense of frustration and rejection by the state, and under-development.”
Terrorist Threat Remains Strong in Africa
2013 appears to have been the year the world woke up to African terrorism terrorists in Africa. Military gains against Islamist fighters in places like Mali and Somalia were followed by major terrorist attacks in neighboring countries. Such events demonstrated how complex and strong the threat remains.
Caty Weaver reports.
2013 began with France sending troops to Mali, its former colony. Al-Qaida-linked fighters in control of northern Mali were moving south to try to capture the whole country. Mali’s army was not strong enough to defeat the rebels. French and African troops stopped the move, and re-captured control of the north. But Islamist fighters then attacked a natural gas center in nearby Algeria. They took hundreds of people hostage and killed at least 36 foreigners.
2013 年初，法国派遣部队到前殖民地马里。控制马里北部并与基地组织有关的武装分子向南方转移，企图控制整个国家。马里军队不足以打败叛军。法国和非洲部队阻止了他们的转移，重新夺取了对北方的控制。但伊斯兰教武装分子接着袭击了阿尔及利亚附近的一个天然气中心。他们扣押了数百名人质，杀害了至少 36 位外国人。
In Somalia, conditions appeared to be improving at the beginning of last year. Kenyan and African Union troops had forced the militant group al-Shabab from several cities. But in September, a small number of al-Shabab fighters attacked a shopping center in the Kenyan capital Nairobi. They killed more than 60 people. The attack uncovered weaknesses in Kenyan security and intelligence agencies.
在索马里，局势似乎在去年年初有所好转。肯尼亚和非盟军队迫使激进组织青年党从几个城市撤离。但在 9 月份，少数青年党武装分子袭击了肯尼亚首都内罗毕的一个购物中心。他们杀害了 60 多人。这次袭击暴露了肯尼亚安全和情报机构的不足。
The world watched as hundreds escaped the shopping center.
“All I could remember people saying is ‘lie down, lie down.’ And so everyone kept lying down. Everyone was crawling.”
Nigeria says it is winning its fight against Boko Haram, the Islamist rebel group it has been fighting since 2009. In May, Nigeria launched an offensive against the group that continues today. The United Nations says more than 1,200 people have been killed in the offensive. But Boko Haram continues to attack.
尼日利亚称自己赢得了与博科圣地的战争，它从 2009 年起就与这个伊斯兰教叛军组织进行斗争。5 月，尼日利亚对该组织发动攻势，并一直持续到现在。联合国称，在这场进攻中，超过 1200 人死亡，但博科圣地仍在继续袭击。
This pattern has been seen throughout Africa: Islamist fighters seize territory and create safe places from which they can plan further attacks. They may even try to govern their captured territory. But when soldiers attack, the Islamists cross borders. They attack in new places. And, they seek young fighters to strengthen their groups.
Bakary Sambe is a Senegalese researcher. He says military action -- especially by Western forces -- often hurts the fight against terrorists.
Bakary Sambe 是一名塞内加尔研究人员。他说，军事行动——尤其是西方军队发起的——经常有损于反恐行动。
“It’s absurd to say you can make war on terrorism which by nature is constantly regenerating and evolving. We also need to fight the causes of radicalization: poverty, a sense of frustration and rejection by the state, and under-development.”
Experts say al-Shabab is the best-organized of the al-Qaida-linked groups in Africa. They say it has fighters in more countries than any other terrorist group. The experts say the Westgate Mall attack strengthened the group and helped it attract new fighters.
Abdiwahab Sheikh Abdisamed is a Horn of Africa expert based in Nairobi. He says the international community must keep putting pressure on al-Shabab.
Abdiwahab Sheikh Abdisamed 是身在内罗毕的非洲之角专家。他说，国际社会必须保持对青年党的压力。
“They have an agenda beyond Somalia. They have an agenda beyond, beyond the region. They are going to Islamize the whole world by force -- not by preaching, by force.”
The United States and the European Union are watching the fight against terrorism in Africa closely. And France will continue its military presence in Mali. But other Western powers do not plan to deploy troops in the fight. They will, however, continue to give money to support and train African troops to fight terrorism.
I’m Caty Weaver.
Finally, recently, we received our supply of VOA wall calendars for 2014. This year, the calendars not only show all 12 months of the New Year, but include beautiful pictures of the Washington, DC area. They also have pictures of all the Presidents from Harry Truman to Barack Obama. To get your calendar, simply send an e-mail to us at email@example.com. Make sure to include your mailing address when you write. We have several hundred 2014 calendars. But when they are gone, they are gone. So write to us today!
最后，最近我们开始提供 VOA 的 2014 年挂历。今年，这些日历不仅会显示新年的全部 12 个月，而且还有华盛顿特区的美图，还有从哈里•杜鲁门到巴拉克•奥巴马的所有总统的图片。
And that’s our program for today. It was written in Special English from reports by VOA correspondents Anne Look in Dakar and Gabe Joselow in Nairobi.
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I’m Christopher Cruise reporting from VOA Learning English headquarters in Washington.
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