Hello, again, and welcome back. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. We invite you to listen carefully so that you can learn and improve your American English. Today we talk about health issues. First, we are off to Cameroon to hear how officials are turning against illegal hospitals and their workers. Then we head east to Ethiopia. Birth control is the subject there. We will have information about a program that aims to help recent mothers to keep from becoming pregnant again too quickly.
It is a whole new year, and we hope you will make a note to join us every day for “As It Is” on VOA.
Cameroon has begun a campaign against hospitals that offer treatment illegally in the country. The Ministry of Health says thousands of hospitals operating without legal permission are responsible for the deaths of many patients. The government says the campaign includes people who practice traditional Chinese medicine.
Twenty-seven-year-old Mirabel Ndi watches helplessly as her two-month-old baby cries in pain. The mother says she spent the whole night in a private clinic in Yaounde, but no medical workers were on duty.
27 岁的 Mirabel Ndi 无助地看着自己 2 个月大的孩子痛苦大哭。这位妈妈说，她在雅温得一家私人诊所待了一整晚，却没有当值医务人员。
“I came to the hospital and there is nobody to help. Nobody to help.”
Hospital workers have gone into hiding since the campaign against illegal medical centers began. Bijogo Atangana is secretary-general of Cameroon’s National Medical Council. He says the Council will continue to try to organize the hospitals.
在反对非法医疗中心的运动发起后，医院员工都销声匿迹了。Bijogo Atangana 是喀麦隆国家医学委员会的秘书长。他说，该委员会将继续协助医院的组织。
He says hospitals are spreading across the country, many of them illegal. He says all doctors working in such places who are not members of the National Medical Council are acting illegally.
The government of Cameroon says it has already identified 600 illegal hospitals and health centers.
喀麦隆政府称，已经查处了 600 家非法医院和医疗中心。
Andre Mama Fouda is Cameroon’s minister of health. He says the government is targeting hospitals throughout the country and wants to close them if they lack legal permission to operate.
Andre Mama Fouda 是喀麦隆卫生部长。他说，政府的目标指向全国的医院，并且想要将没有合法营业执照的医院关闭。
Dr. Etoundi Albert is one of the officials of the emergency group at the Central Hospital in Yaounde. He says just a few people are working there and they have far too much to do.
Etoundi Albert 医生是雅温得中心医院紧急小组的官员之一。他说，只有几个人在这里工作，他们的任务太多了。
He says the hospital can handle as many as eight emergencies at a time. He says 20 cases needing less immediate care can be dealt with at one time. But he says it is very important that qualified medical workers are available to treat patients. And he says when an emergency takes place, the hospital should be able to react fast.
他说，医院最多可以同时应对 8 起紧急事件，同时应对 20 个相对不够紧急的病例。但他认为，有资格治疗病人的医务人员是很重要的。他说，当紧急事故发生的时候，医院应该能够迅速做出反应。
Dr. Nick Ngwanyam directs the Saint Louis Higher Institute of Health. The Institute trains medical workers. He praises steps being taken by the government to stop illegal hospitals as saving lives.
Nick Ngwanyam 医生是圣路易斯高级健康研究所的主管。该研究所可以培训医务人员。他称赞政府所采取的整顿非法医院的措施是挽救生命。
“When it comes to medicine, there is no room for mistakes and so the action is welcome. You go to the hospital, there is the doctor who is genuine. Then there is a nurse who is called doctor, the laboratory technician (who is called) doctor, then the nurse aid, doctor. And so doctor, which used to mean something, has become a generic name for somebody in a white coat.”
The government is also targeting illegal Chinese medical practitioners. Some Cameroonians suggest that the government should organize the practice of Chinese medicines in Cameroon instead of stopping it.
Daniel Kum sought help from a practitioner of traditional Chinese medicine. He praises his treatment. He says he moved from one hospital to another without being helped by the drugs he received. But he says when he took the Chinese medicine, his condition improved.
Daniel Kum 求助了一位传统中医。他称赞了他的治疗。他说，他换了一个又一个医院，那里的药物都没有什么帮助。但他说，在他服用中药后，情况有所好转。
The World Health Organization says that 200- thousand deaths that could be prevented take place in the world each year. The Organization says this could NOT happen if people did not use phony, or false, drugs. Illegally operated hospitals supply most of these drugs.
世界卫生组织称，全世界每年有 20 万原本可以避免的死亡。该组织称，如果人们没有使用假药，这就不会发生。大部分假药都是非法运营的医院提供的。
And, the International Policy Network says false drugs for tuberculosis and malaria are estimated to kill 700-thousand people around the world every year.
此外，国际政策网络称，治疗肺结核和疟疾的假药每年害死全世界大约 70 万人。
Ethiopia Aims to Help New Mothers
Thousands of people gathered recently in Ethiopia at the International Conference on Family Planning. Postpartum family planning services are meant to provide birth control for women after childbirth and during the first 12 months of motherhood. The goal is to prevent the new mothers from getting pregnant again too soon, which often has bad health effects for mother and child.
近期，数千人聚集在埃塞俄比亚的家庭计划国际大会。产后家庭规划服务是为了给刚刚生育 12 个月的新妈妈提供生育控制，其目标是防止新妈妈过快再次怀孕，否则会对母婴健康产生不良影响。
The United States International Development Agency operates postpartum family planning programs in 15 Asian and African countries, including Ethiopia. Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program Director Koki Agarwal says these programs are very important.
美国国际发展机构在 15 个亚洲和非洲国家开办了产后家庭规划项目，包括埃塞俄比亚。母婴健康综合项目主管 Director Koki 说，这些项目非常重要。
“So if these women were not to use family planning then they would have shortened birth intervals, which would mean higher risks of mortality for their child. So even 30 percent higher risks for children who were born when the intervals are less than three years.”
“如果这些妇女不注意家庭规划，她们的生育间隔可能会很短，这可能意味着较高的婴儿死亡率。因此，婴儿出生间隔低于 3 年时，风险甚至会高 30%。”
And, she said these mothers have problems with anemia and the ability to breastfeed their child. So the child may not get full nourishment.
The plan presented at the conference outlines a record keeping system of postpartum contraceptive use, easy-to-understand information materials for families, and proposed practices for health workers.
Nurse Tigest Yigezu works for one of the 16 health centers in Ethiopia that offers the postpartum family planning program. She does daily house visits to mothers who just gave birth, and tries to persuade families to use contraceptives.
Tigest Yigezu 护士在埃塞俄比亚 16 家提供产后家庭规划项目的健康中心之一工作。她每天上门拜访刚刚生育的妈妈，并试着劝说她们避孕。
She says there are no problems persuading families to use contraceptives for a short period of time. But, male partners mostly refuse long-term use. She says this is a cultural and religious issue, as children are seen as a blessing for the family.
Research shows that 95 percent of postpartum women around the world want to avoid another pregnancy for at least two years. Yet 65 percent do not use birth control. In Ethiopia, only 19 percent of women with newborn babies use contraceptives.
研究显示，全世界 95% 的产后女性希望在至少两年内避免再次怀孕， 65%都不采但用节育措施。在埃塞俄比亚，只有 19%刚刚生育的女性使用避孕措施。
Shashemene Hospital Director Wihid Gebrehiwot says workers at his hospital began offering postpartum family planning services last year. He says the hospital has only been able to help 245 women because of limited resources.
Shashemene 医 院 的 主 管 Wihid Gebrehiwot 说，他的医院员工从去年开始提供产后家庭规划服务。他说，由于资源限制，医院只能帮助 245 位女性。
Dr. Wihid says it is not clear how they will continue to provide free contraceptives if the Maternal and Child Health Integrated Program stops providing money.
Ethiopia has met the Millennium Development Goal target on child survival by reducing its under-five mortality rate by 67 percent in the past 20 years. More attention on postpartum family planning could further reduce the number of child deaths.
埃塞俄比亚在过去 20 年将 5 岁以下儿童死亡率降低了 67%，达到了针对儿童的千年发展目标。更多关注产后家庭规划能够进一步减少婴儿死亡数。
And that’s all for this edition of “As It Is” on the Voice of America. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington, with a very short history lesson for this Thursday, the 16thof January. On this date in 1920, the 18thamendment to the United States Constitution went into effect, banning the drinking of alcohol. But 13 years later, prohibition came to an end!
1920 年的今天，美国宪法第十八修正案生效，禁止酒精饮品。但 13 年后，禁令被解除。
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