Hello, again, and welcome back to the program that helps you to learn and improve your American English. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Today we travel to Sierra Leone to meet some very happy people. A book of great importance to them has finally been translated into a local language.
Then we will have some information about agriculture. Scientists are studying how rising temperatures are affecting crops and the diseases that affect them.
“As It Is” is headed your way, by radio and Internet, from VOA!
The first translation of the Bible in the Sierra Leone dialect of Krio was published less than a year ago after years of work. The new, Krio version of Christianity’s holy book is gaining widespread use. And it is helping to increase attendance at religious services in Freetown, Sierra Leone’s capital.
The Warren Memorial Church in Freetown is using the newly created Krio language Bible at its services. People sing in Krio, and religious messages are given in the dialect.
Ruby Pearce helps organize services at the church. She says the Krio version of the Bible took many years to create. She says the Bible Society of Sierra Leone had the idea to create the first ever Krio Bible in the 1970’s.
Bible translators came to Sierra Leone in 1974. But Ruby Pearce says they worked only part of the time. The translation of the New Testament was finished in the 1980’s. But translation of the more ancient part of the Bible, the Old Testament, extended into the 21stCentury. The Krio Bible was finally completed in the spring of 2013.
Ms. Pearce says it was a major step for the country because the majority of its people speak Krio.
“We need to know our God understands our language. And there are some nuances in the English language that we cannot understand, no matter what. But when it is in our own language we are able to approach God better.”
And church attendance has improved. Ms. Pearce says about 10 to 20 percent more people attend services when the Krio Bible is used.
The ancestors of the Krio people were freed slaves. Their language began in the colonial period. At that time, Krio was developed by early settlers in the western part of Freetown. It is a mixture of English and African languages. Some additional words were borrowed from French and Spanish.
Desmond George Williams is the senior steward of the Warren Memorial Church. He is pleased with the public reaction to the Krio Bible over the past few months.
“People hearing the story from a language they understand gives it a fresh outlook. It brings the story closer to them when they hear it in the vernacular. And I think that is one great strength that the Krio Bible has had.”
Twenty-eight-year-old Cindy Williams agrees. She performs as part of the choir, or singing group, at Warren Memorial Church. She says that having the Krio Bible available is helpful when preparing for services in the language.
Earlier, it would take longer to put together a Krio service because of the need to put the words from English into Krio. She says many young people have said they now feel a stronger connection to the Bible. They have a new feeling of satisfaction about speaking their own language.
Our World is Changing
If you grow food to feed your family, or know someone who does, then you will want to listen carefully to this information. Bob Doughty joins us with details of a study from England that examines our changing world.
Insects and diseases that attack food crops are moving as rising temperatures bring changes to the environment. Plant diseases alone destroy an estimated 10 to 16 percent of the world’s crops in the field. Experts say plant diseases destroy another six to 12 percent after harvest.
A new study examines the movement of crop pests and diseases and how it will affect agricultural production worldwide.
Dan Bebber is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Exeter in England. He says research has shown that wild plants and animals are moving toward Earth’s north and south poles as the planet warms. Mr. Bebber wanted to know if the same thing was happening with organisms that attack agricultural crops.
He examined reports of first sightings of new insects and diseases around the world. The records came from CABI -- the Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International. He says the group began collecting information from developing and industrial countries years ago.
“That database has grown and grown and grown, and now CABI are tracking many hundreds of pests and pathogens.”
Dan Bebber and his research team studied 612 different organisms -- from viruses and bacteria to insects, like beetles and butterflies. They found that since 1960, crop pests and diseases have been moving toward the poles at an average rate of about 3 kilometers each year.
Mr. Bebber says this puts the most productive farmland in the world in danger.
“As new species of pests and diseases evolve and potentially the environment for them becomes more amenable at higher latitudes, the pressure on the breadbaskets of the world is going to increase.”
Farmers face other threats. Invasive species passed through trade are also causing problems. Gene Kritsky is an entomologist at the College of Mount St. Joseph in Ohio. He specializes in the study of insects. He says climate change may improve conditions for some invasive species.
“It means that species in other parts of the world that might do well in warmer temperatures can now do well in the breadbasket of America.”
Another entomologist, Christian Krupke of Purdue University, says the effects of these changes will depend very much on the crop, the insect and the disease. But he says the research is a warning sign that people should care about climate change and do something about it. I’m Bob Doughty.
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Thank you for spending some time with us on this Thursday, the 23rdday of the new year. On this date in 1737, John Hancock was born in the northeastern state of Massachusetts. He became a patriot and statesman, and was the first person to sign his name to the Declaration of Independence. He signed the famous document in very large writing. And that is where the expression to “put your John Hancock on,” or sign a paper, comes from.
More Learning English programs are just seconds away. And world news follows at the beginning of the hour.
Ruby Pearce 在教堂协助礼拜的组织。她说，克里奥尔语版本的《圣经》花了很多年才形成。她说，塞拉利昂的圣经公会在 20 世纪 70 年代就有了译制第一版克里奥尔语《圣经》的想法。
《圣经》的译制者在 1974 年来到塞拉利昂。但 Ruby Pearce 说，他们只在部分时间工作。《新约全书》的翻译在 20 世纪 80 年代结束。但《圣经》更古老的部分——《旧约全书》——的译著拖到了 21 世纪。克里奥尔语的《圣经》最终在 2013 年春天完成。
而且教堂的参与人数也增加了。Pearce 说，在克里奥尔语《圣经》使用后，到教堂参加礼拜的人数增加了 10~20%。
Desmond George Williams 是沃伦纪念教堂的高级管事。他对过去数月公众对克里奥尔语《圣经》的反响感到开心。
28 岁的 Cindy Williams 表示同意。她是沃伦纪念教堂唱诗班的一员。她说，克里奥尔语《圣经》对准备这种语言的礼拜很有用。
侵袭粮食作物的病虫害随着环境受到气温上升的影响而转移。仅植物病害就造成了全世界田间作物约 10~16%的损失。专家表示，丰收后植物病害的破坏还会增加约 6~12%。
Dan Bebber 是英格兰艾克赛特大学的高级研究员。他说，研究显示野生植物和动物正随着地球变暖向南北两极转移。
“这个数据库在不断扩大，现在 CABI 追踪了数百种害虫和病原体。”
Dan Bebber 和他的科研团队研究了 612 种不同生物——从病毒和细菌到甲壳虫、蝴蝶等昆虫。他们发现，1960 年以来，农作物病虫害年均约向两极移动 3 公里。
农民还面临其他威胁。贸易中的入侵性物种也会引发问题。Gene Kritsky 是俄亥俄州圣约瑟夫学院的昆虫学家。他的专业是昆虫研究。他说，气候变化会改善其他入侵性昆虫的生存条件。
另一位昆虫学家，普渡大学的 Christian Krupke 说，这些变化的影响很大程度上取决于农作物、昆虫和病害。但他表示，这项研究是一个警示信号，人们应该注意气候变化，并对此做些事情。