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[翻译]新闻传真 - 2014 年尼日利亚执政党面临挑战

来源:慢速英语   时间:2014-02-01 12:01:50

Hello, and welcome to As It Is from VOA Learning English.

I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.

Today on the program, we report on a new opera about a hero in the fight against slavery in the United States.

“There are elements of gospel, jazz, blues, and then you hear a ‘field holler,’ you hear ragtime, work songs.”

But we begin today with a look at the difficulties facing Nigeria’s ruling political party in 2014 -- especially from the main opposition party.

“And that change, whereas the way we have seen it, is inevitable.  It is coming -- and it will come very soon.  Politics is a game of number(s) and we are increasing by the day.”

A look ahead to Nigerian politics in 2014, and a new American opera about slavery, written by a Nigerian-American: today on As It Is.

Growth of Nigerian Opposition Expected to Continue

There were major political changes in Nigeria in 2013.  Different opposition parties joined, and many governors and members of parliament who were members of the ruling party left the party to join the opposition.

Experts say President Goodluck Jonathan and his party face major challenges this year as the country prepares for presidential elections in 2015.

Caty Weaver reports.

Nigeria’s united opposition is now stronger than at any time since military rule ended in the country in 1999.

This opposition is called the All Progressive’s Congress, or APC.  Powerful members of other opposition parties and the ruling People’s Democratic Party have joined the APC since July.

APC politicians like Hajiya Hafsat Mohammed Baba in Kaduna say people want change.

“And that change, whereas the way we have seen it, is inevitable.  It is coming -- and it will come very soon.  Politics is a game of number(s) and we are increasing by the day.”

Five of Nigeria’s powerful state governors recently left the ruling party and joined the APC.  Among the five were the governors of the heavily-populated states of Kano and Rivers.

And 37 members of the National Assembly’s lower house have moved from the PDP to APC.  Now, the PDP no longer has a majority there.

APC politicians and political observers tell VOA that as many as seven more governors will leave the PDP for the APC.  They say members of the National Assembly’s upper house -- the Senate -- will do the same early this year.

Political expert Abubakar Sufiyan Osa Idu Al Siddiq says the loss of the governors’ support for the PDP hurts the chances for President Jonathan to be reelected.

“Definitely, People’s Democratic Party has never had it so bad because to be elected president of this country even if you have the majority of the votes, the law says that you must have 24 states out of 36 -- two-thirds of them.”

Ruling party member Saidu Usman Gombe says he does not believe the APC will be successful.

“This opposition party, they are deceiving themselves.  Even in the party, that opposition, there is a lot of clash.  And they will crack.  They will break down completely before (the end of) 2014.”

The People’s Democratic Party has governed Nigeria since 1999.  It is the only party to hold the highest positions in the central government and have representatives in the country’s 774 local governments.

But many members have been leaving the party because they are unhappy with President Jonathan.  Some do not support his efforts to fight corruption.  Some are unhappy that he did not follow a party custom that is designed to balance the presidency between leaders from the north and from the south.

President Jonathan reportedly has the lowest level of support of his rule.  Experts say his opponents may try to remove him from office this year as they gain new members in the National Assembly.

I’m Caty Weaver.

You are listening to As It Is, a program designed to help you learn to speak, read and write American English.

Now back to Christopher Cruise.  He reports on a new opera written by a Nigerian-American woman about slavery in the United States.

Thanks Caty.

Nigerian-American Writes Opera About American Slavery

The opera is called “Harriet Tubman: When I Crossed That Line To Freedom.”  Harriet Tubman is an American hero who escaped from slavery and led others to freedom.

Nigerian-American composer Nkeiru Okoye wrote the opera.  She says she has been interested in Harriet Tubman all her life.

“I don’t remember ever not knowing about Harriet Tubman.  My mother used to love to read my sister and me stories, so my mother probably told me about her even before I learned about Harriet in school.”

The American Opera Projects produced the opera.  The U.S. National Endowment for the Arts helped finance it.

Harriet Tubman was born into slavery in the state of Maryland around 1820.  In 1849, she escaped slavery by fleeing to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania -- the northern states did not permit slavery.  Harriet Tubman immediately began her anti-slavery work.

“But she became famous because she went back down to rescue the rest of her family and anyone else that would go with her.”

​Ms. Tubman led the creation of a series of hiding places that came to be called The Underground Railroad.  Slaves who escaped used the places to travel toward freedom.  The people who ran the Railroad were called “conductors.”

“Harriet, who became known as ‘Moses,’ was the most famous conductor in the U.S.”

There are many stories about Harriet Tubman’s life.  Some of them are not true.  Ms. Okoye says when she began to write the opera, she had planned to add to those stories.

“When I started this process, I wanted to pay tribute to Harriet Tubman by writing a highly fictionalized account of her.”

But she decided to try to get the factsinstead.

“I spent three years getting to know Harriet’s world.”

Using that research, Ms. Okoye wrote what is called a “folk opera.”

“Which is slightly different from regular opera.  Most of the music in Harriet Tubman is rooted in traditional African-American folk idioms.  So, there are elements of gospel, jazz, blues, and then you hear a ‘field holler,’ you hear ragtime, work songs and there are things that sound like spirituals throughout the opera.”

Ms. Okoye says she wanted people who saw the opera to learn about the completelife of Harriet Tubman -- not just her heroism.

“The first act is called ‘In slavery’ and the second act of the opera is called ‘In Freedom.’  And I did that because I thought it was very important for viewers to experience Harriet as a full person.  I think most people like to think of Harriet as a born liberator, and it robs them of an important part of the story.  It’s kind of like hero worship.  We don’t get that there’s this vulnerable person who’s there -- we don’t get the full picture.”

“Harriet Tubman: When I Crossed That Line To Freedom” opens next month at the Irondale Center in the Fort Greene neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York.  Fort Greene was one of the stops along The Underground Railroad.

Thank you for spending some of your time with us today.

I’m Christopher Cruise reporting from VOA Learning English headquarters in Washington.

在今天的节目里,我们讲述一部关于美国废奴英雄的歌剧。

“有福音音乐、爵士、布鲁斯等元素,你还能听到‘田间即兴’,听到繁音拍子、劳动号子。”

但节目的开始,我们了解尼日利亚执政党 2014 年面临的困难——尤其是来自主要反对党派的困难。

“而这种改变,鉴于我们看待它的方式,是不可避免的。它在到来——很快就会到来。政治是一个数字游戏,而我们每天都在增加。”

尼日利亚反对派将继续壮大

2013 年尼日利亚发生了重大政治变化。不同的反对党派加入进来,很多作为执政党成员的州长和议会成员离开该党,加入反对派。

专家表示,古德勒克•乔纳森和他的党派今年面临巨大挑战,而该国家准备在 2015 年举行总统选举。

尼日利亚的统一反对派现在比 1999 年军方统治结束以来的任何时候都强大。

这个反对党叫做全体进步大会党(APC)。其他反对党以及执政的人民民主党的有权力的成员从 7 月份开始不断加入 APC。

来自卡杜纳的 Hajiya Hafsat Mohammed Baba 等 APC 政客认为,人民想要改变。

“而这种改变,鉴于我们看待它的方式,是不可避免的。它在到来——很快就会到来。政治是一个数字游戏,而我们每天都在增加。”

最近,尼日利亚 5 名颇有权力的州长离开执政党加入 APC。 5 个人包括人口密集这的卡诺和河流州的州长。

此外,37 成员的国民大会下议院从 PDP 转移到 APC。现在,PDP 不再拥有多数派。

APC 政治家和政治观察员告诉 VOA,另外多达 7 名州长将离开 PDP 到 APC。他们说,国民大会上议院的成员(参议员)在今年年初也将这么做。

政治专家 Abubakar Sufiyan Osa Idu Al Siddiq 说,失去州长对 PDP 的支持,这有损乔纳森总统重新当选的机会。

“毫无疑问,人民民主党从来没这么糟糕过,因为如果想获选成为国家总统,即便你有多数派的投票,法律还要求必须获得 36 州的 24 个支持——它们的 2/3。”

执政党成员 Saidu Usman Gombe 说,它们不相信 APC 能够成功。

“这个反对党派,他们是在自欺欺人。即便是在这个反对党内部也有很多冲突。他们会分裂,他们会在 2014 年年末以前彻底失败。”

人民民主党从 1999 年开始执政尼日利亚。它是中央政府唯一占居高位的党派,在全国 774 个地方政府都有代表。

但很多成员在脱离该党,因为他们对乔纳森总统不满。一些人不支持他的反腐行动,一些人不满他偏离了一项平衡南、北方领导人总统任期的党派传统。

据报道,乔纳森总统任期的支持率最低。专家表示,随着他的反对派在国民大会吸纳新成员,他们会试图今年将他罢免。

尼日利亚裔美国人撰写的一部关于美国奴隶制的歌剧

这部歌剧叫做《哈莉特•塔布曼:当我越过自由的界线》。哈莉特•塔布曼是一位逃离奴役并引领人们走向自由的美国英雄。

尼日利亚裔美国作家 Nkeiru Okoye 撰写了这部歌剧。她说,她这辈子一直对哈莉特•塔布曼感兴趣。

“在我记忆中,我一直都知道哈莉特•塔布曼。我妈妈过去喜欢给我和妹妹读故事,所以可能是妈妈在我从学校了解哈莉特之前讲给我的。”

这部歌剧由“美国歌剧计划”出品,美国国家艺术基金会资助。

哈莉特•塔布曼在 1820 年左右出生在马里兰州,生来就是奴隶。1849 年,她摆脱奴役逃往宾夕法尼亚州的费城——北方各州不允许奴隶制。哈莉特•塔布曼立即开始自己的废奴工作。

“但她开始出名是因为她又回到南方,解救她的家庭成员,以及所有愿意与她一起离开的人。”

塔布曼领导建造一系列藏身地,它们后来被称作“地下铁路”。逃脱的奴隶利用这些地方通向自由。运作这些“铁路”的人被称作“向导”。

“哈莉特后来被称作‘摩西’,是美国最著名的‘向导’”。

关于哈莉特•塔布曼这一生的故事有很多,其中一些是不真实的。Okoye 说,当她开始写这部歌剧时,她曾计划加入这些故事。

“当我刚开始时,我想要通过写一些高度小说化的内容赞颂她。”

但她最终决定采用事实。

“我花了 3 年时间了解哈莉特的世界。”通过这些调查,Okoye 写了这部“民谣歌剧”。

“它和普通歌剧有一点区别。《哈莉特•塔布曼》中的大部分音乐来源于传统的非裔美国民间用语。所以,有福音、爵士、布鲁斯等元素,然后你能在整个歌剧中听到‘田间即兴’,听到繁音拍子、劳动号子,以及一些听起来像圣歌的内容。”

Okoye 说,她希望看到这部剧的人了解哈莉特•塔布曼的全部生活——而不仅仅是她的英雄形象。

“第一幕叫做‘奴役’,第二幕叫做‘自由’。我这么做是因为我认为这对观众感受完整的哈莉特很重要。我认为,大多数人会认为哈莉特生来就是解救者,而这会剥夺这个故事的重要部分。这有点像是‘英雄崇拜’。这样我们就无法了解她的脆弱——就无法了解全部。”

《哈莉特•塔布曼:当我越过自由的界线》下个月在纽约布鲁克林格林堡街区的艾昂达中心开演。格林堡是“地下铁路”的一个站点。