首页 > VOA慢速英语 > AS IT IS > [翻译]新闻传真 - 土耳其新法律引发政府网络管控争议

文章详情

[翻译]新闻传真 - 土耳其新法律引发政府网络管控争议

来源:慢速英语   时间:2014-02-16 09:21:58

Welcome to the VOA Learning English program, As It Is!  I’m Mario Ritter in Washington.  Today we explore the issue of freedom of the Internet.  First, we turn to Turkey and a new law that critics say gives the government too much control of the Internet.  Later in the program, we hear how the Committee to Protect Journalists has added cyberspace to its list of places where media freedom is at risk.

The committee’s new media freedom report and Turkey’s Internet law are next on As It Is.

Two Views of Turkey's New Internet Law

Opposition parties in Turkey have called on President Abdullah Gul to veto new government controls on the Internet.  The Turkish parliament approved a bill to set up the new restrictions last week.  The measure has raised concerns in many countries about freedoms and rights in Turkey.  Christopher Cruise has more on the story.

Turkish President Abdullah Gul is under pressure to veto the bill.  It gives the government the power to block websites without a court order.  The legislation also gives the government the ability to examine user information for up to two years.

The leader of the main opposition party called on the president to take a “position on democracy and veto the law.”

International pressure is growing.  Emma Sinclair Webb is a researcher at Human Rights Watch.  She says the group is calling on the president to take action.

“We are calling for the president to veto the new law. It has passed through parliament very quickly without consultation, without sufficient expert input.”

Both the European Union and the Council of Europe have called for the measure to be withdrawn.

Saturday night, police used tear gas and rubber bullets to break up a large protest against the Internet legislation.  Turkey’s main business alliance also has called for the law’s cancellation.

Last month, President Gul noted the importance of freedom of the Internet, especially social media.  However, he is also a founding member of the ruling AK Party.

Kadri Gursel writes about diplomatic issues for a Turkish newspaper and a website.  He says the president is attempting a political balancing act with Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
“[Mr.] Gul has positioned already himself as the natural alternative to [Prime Minister Recep Tayyip] Erdogan from within the Islamist conservative political movement.”

Speaking in Istanbul recently, Prime Minister Erdogan strongly defended the new Internet law and denounced its critics.  He said the new rules do not establish any controls on the Internet, but make it safer and freer instead.  He said those protesting against the law were part of, what he called, the “pornography lobby.”

He also repeated a warning to the country’s business leaders by saying they will face investigations by tax officials.

Cengiz Aktar of the Istanbul Policy Forum is a political scientist.  He says President Gul is facing a major decision.

“This will be a real yardstick about his intentions—whether he will challenge now Prime Minister Erdogan or not.”

Even if the president vetoes the bill, he would be required to sign it into law if the government passed it a second time without changes. But observers say such a veto would likely increase opposition to the legislation.  I’m Christopher Cruise.

The Committee to Protect Journalists Now Follows Risks in Cyberspace

The Committee to Protect Journalists has begun to measure press freedom on the Internet.  The committee recently added the Internet as a category, or grouping, on its yearly risk list.  The list identifies places where press freedoms are decreasing. Steve Ember has VOA’s report.

The Committee to Protect Journalists says violence and repression continue to threaten the work of reporters around the world.  But it says laws governing the Internet and information-gathering programs are also starting to affect the flow of information.

The list of countries with the biggest drop in media freedom includes Egypt, Bangladesh, Syria, Ecuador and Liberia.  Zambia, Russia, Vietnam and Turkey were also named.

Geoffrey King works for the Committee to Protect Journalists.  He says Turkish officials have taken strong actions against reporters.

“Turkey is the leading jailer of journalists in the world.  People have been shot with less-lethal rounds and tear-gassed around and sprayed with high-pressure water cannon in the streets in protest of this bill.”

Geoffrey King says new amendments to Turkey’s Internet law will make the situation worse.  He says the legislation would make it much easier for the government to block websites, sometimes without a court order.

Turkish officials have answered the CPJ report.  They told VOA the amendments were made to improve the law.  They said Parliament wanted to balance freedom of expression, individual rights and protection of privacy.

The media rights group says five reporters have been killed in Egypt since the military seized power last year.  It says 30 more reporters have been attacked, and 11 news organizations raided.  And Egyptian officials recently detained 20 reporters, including four from Al Jazeera television.

Reporter Anna Therese Day says she left Egypt because it is not safe.  She told VOA on Skype that Egypt is now very different from what it was during the revolution.

“I worked there freely.  I worked by myself.  I worked with short sleeves on; I didn’t cover my hair most of the time.  Now, that would be unheard of for someone that looks like me.”

Wars are still the biggest threat to reporters’ lives.  But Geoffrey King of the CPJ warns that efforts by governments to watch what reporters are doing could become more damaging to their work.

“Not just targeted surveillance of individual suspects but mass surveillance across societies in many countries.  That’s why it’s cyberspace and not one particular country being named.  And so different countries do it with varying levels of rule of law and due process but it’s quickly becoming very easy for governments to spy on their critics.”

The Committee to Protect Journalists says reports about intelligence-gathering programs by the United States could hurt newsgathering efforts.  It says such programs may frighten away possible news sources.  The group says these individuals need to be protected against legal or other action.  I’m Steve Ember.

I’m Mario Ritter.  Thank you for listening.  Tell us what you want to hear about on a future As It Is program.  To leave a comment, go to our webpage, www.voanews.cn.

今天,我们探究网络自由问题。首先,我们来到土耳其,一项新法律被批评者认为带给政府太多的网络控制权。随后,我们将了解到记者保护委员会将网络空间加入它的媒体自由危机名单。

对土耳其新网络法案的两种观点

土耳其反对党派要求总统阿卜杜拉•居尔否决政府针对网络的新控制。土耳其议会上周通过了一项设立新限制的议案。该法案引发了很多国家对土耳其自由和人权的关注。

土耳其总统阿卜杜拉•居尔面临否决该提案的压力。这项立法赋予政府不经过法庭就可以关闭网站的权力,还让政府能够在两年内查看用户信息。

主要反对党领袖要求总统站在“民主的立场上,否决该法案”。

国际压力也在增加。Emma Sinclair Webb 是人权观察组织的研究人员。她说,该组织也呼吁土耳其总统采取行动。

我们呼吁总统否决这项新法。它未经讨论、未经足够专家介入就很快被议会通过。

欧盟和欧洲理事会都呼吁取缔该法案。

周六晚,警方用催泪瓦斯和橡皮弹镇压针对该网络立法的大规模抗议。土耳其主要的商业联盟也呼吁取消该法案。

上个月,居尔总统指出了网络自由的重要性,尤其是社交媒体。然而,他也是执政党 AK 党的创始成员。

Kadri Gursel 为一家土耳其报纸和网站撰写外交专栏。他说,总统试图与总理雷杰普•塔伊普•埃尔多安之间建立政治平衡。

“居尔已经在伊斯兰教保守政治运动中表明了自己与埃尔多安的立场不同。”

总理埃尔多安最近在伊斯坦布尔讲话,为新网络法强烈辩护并谴责批评者。他说,新规不会对互联网建立任何控制,而会使它更安全、更自由。他说,那些抗议该法律的人属于他所谓的“色情主义游说者”。

他还重复了对本国商业领袖的一项警告,称他们会面临税务官员的调查。

伊斯坦布尔政策论坛的 Cengiz Aktar 是一位政治科学家。他说,居尔总统面临的是一项重大决定。

“这将是他意愿的真实体现——不管他是否反对埃尔多安总理。”

即使总统否决该议案,如果政府不经修改地再度通过它,他就必须将其签署生效。但观察者称,这样的否决能够增加对该立法的反对。

保护记者委员会开始跟进网络空间风险

保护记者委员会(CPJ)开始考量互联网上的出版自由。该委员会最近将互联网作为一个类别添加在它的年度风险名单上。这份名单列举了出版自由度下降的地方。

保护记者委员会称,暴力和镇压不断威胁全世界记者的工作。但它指出,控制互联网和信息收集项目的法律也在影响信息的流动。

媒体自由度下降最明显的国家包括埃及、孟加拉国、叙利亚、厄瓜多尔和利比里亚。赞比亚、俄国、越南和土耳其也名列其中。

Geoffrey King 在保护记者委员会工作。他说,土耳其官方对记者采取了强硬手段。

“土耳其是全世界最大的记者牢笼。走上街头抗议这项法案的人被非致死性弹药和催泪瓦斯射击,还被高压水枪喷射。”

Geoffrey King 说,土耳其网络法的修正案会使情况更糟。他说,这项立法能让政府更轻易地关闭网站,有时甚至不需要通过法院。

土耳其官员回应了 CPJ 的这项报告。他们告诉 VOA,这些修正案是在改善该法律。他们表示,议会想要平衡言论自由、个人权利和隐私保护。

这家媒体权利组织称,自从去年军方夺取政权后,埃及已经有 5 名记者被杀。它还指出,还有 30 名记者和 11 家新闻机构遇袭。而埃及官方最近拘禁了 20 名记者,其中 4 名来自半岛电视台。

记者 Anna Therese Day 说,她离开埃及是因为这里不安全。她通过 Skype 告诉VOA,埃及现在与革命时期非常不同。

“我曾在那里自由工作,独自工作。我穿着短袖,不需要在大部分时间都遮住头发。现在,没有人像我这样穿着了。”

战争仍然是对记者生命的最大威胁。但 CPJ 的 Geoffrey King 提醒道,政府对记者所作所为的监管会对他们的工作越来越有害。

“在很多国家,这不仅是对个人的监管,还是对整个社会的大范围监管。这也是为什么网络空间以及并非某个国家被提及。有很多国家通过不同程度的法律规定和诉讼程序来这么做,但这也让政府更容易监视他们的批评者。”

保护记者委员会称,关于美国情报收集项目的报道会影响新闻采集。它说,这些项目会让潜在新闻来源畏首畏尾。该组织说,这些人需要得到法律和其他行动的保护。