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[翻译]新闻传真 - 南非人找到新的生活方式

来源:慢速英语   时间:2014-02-17 10:49:22

Hello and welcome back. I'm Jim Tedder in Washington. Today we travel to South Africa to see how the other guy lives. We will introduce you to a man who has some new ideas about living in the big city. Our second item is for the birds. Actually it is about the birds, and how they have known something for thousands of years that we are just learning.


As It Is ...a radio and Internet program to help you learn and improve your American English...is coming your way ...from VOA.

Ten year ago, the central downtown business area of Johannesburg, South Africa, looked as if it had seen much better days. Many buildings stood empty. Normal city services had stopped operating. But these days in the area known as CDB, things are different.

10 年前,南非约翰内斯堡的市中心商业区(CDB)并没有今日的繁荣。很多建筑空空如也,正常的城市服务也停止运营。但现在 CDB 地区的情况不同了。

Anderson Street is a main connector in downtown Johannesburg. Very near that street, Dirk Bahmann walks through a building's entrance area. He steps into the elevator and rides up to the fourth level.

安德森大街是约翰内斯堡市中心的主要枢纽。在大街紧邻,Dirk Bahmann 步行走过一座建筑的入口。他走进电梯,上到 4 楼。

He opens a door at the end of the hall and enters a space planned for both work and home living. The area has become his personal design and building project since he bought the apartment six years ago.

他在走廊的尽头打开了一扇门,进入一个集工作和生活起居于一体的空间。从 6 年前他购买了这个公寓之后,该区域就成为了他的私人设计和建筑项目。

Mr. Bahmann is an architect and artist who grew up in the suburbs north of Johannesburg. But he says urban living connects him better to the community than living in towns on the edges of cities.

Bahmann 是一位在约翰内斯堡北部郊区长大的建筑师和艺术家。但他说,在城市生活能比在城郊更好地让他与社区联系。

"For me, living in the city was a means to kind of connect with people in an everyday, ordinary way without it having to be pretentious, and that you feel part and belong to something."


Over the last few years, developers have retaken ownership of many buildings. Crime has decreased. Middle and upper-class home buyers have started to take an interest in the area.


Mr. Bahmann designed and built his own modern apartment. It is both home and office. It uses movable furniture to make the space seem as large as possible. But he says there is one problem with living in the city.

Bahmann 设计并建造了他自己的现代化公寓。它既是家也是办公室。它使用了可移动的家具,让空间显得尽可能大。但他说,住在城市也存在一个问题。

"The only thing I miss is getting a full night's sleep. I'm very sensitive to noise, so I always wake up when someone is walking down the road and shouting, or people who hoot when they want to get into the building."


He says except for lack of sleep, the area provides easy living. He can buy food, eat at restaurants, and get all his art materials within minutes from home.


Just outside the downtown area is Johannesburg's Brixton neighborhood. Small houses there are built close to the ground. Homeless people often sleep on steps and porches and under building extensions that protect them the rain and the hot sun.


Some people see danger in Brixton. But architect Thomas Chapman sees something else. He says he sees the possibility of apartment living, or what is called loft living. Mr. Chapman says the area has great promise to develop and increase its population.

一些人在布里克斯顿地区看到了危险,但建筑师 Thomas Chapman 却看到了其他东西。他说,他看到了公寓生活的可能性,或者他所谓的“阁楼生活” Chapman 说,该地区也承诺要大力发展并增加人口。

"That's why we're choosing to act here, because I don't think it's been fully realized, the potential here for what we call loft living or apartment living."


Mr. Chapman is with a group called Local Studio. He and his partners are working on a building with eight apartment units, a coffee shop and a new office space for their own business.

Chapman 在一个名为 Local Studio 的组织工作。他和他的同伴在设计一个拥有 8 个公寓单元、一个咖啡店,以及他们自己的一个新办公区的建筑。

Mr. Chapman says developers are leading the efforts to redevelop CDB. But he says the city attracted their interest. He said, for example, that the city invested in such community basics as pavement – hard roads and sidewalks.

Chapman 说,开发商在主打重建 CDB 的项目。但他说,这座城市也引起了他们的兴趣。比如,他说该城市投资了砾石道和人行道等社区基础建设。

"The truth is that management has gotten better and crime has gotten less. I strongly think it's an urban management issue, and the city has made strides."


Still, developers are taking private responsibility for some issues. Mr. Chapman pointed to the successful development of Maboneng. Developers there have hired full-time security guards. They also have invested in street lighting and waste management.

然而,开发商还在为一些问题承担责任。Chapman 指出了 Maboneng 地区的成功发展。开发商雇佣了全职的安保人员。他们还投资街灯和垃圾处理。

Mr. Chapman says his development will likely need some of those same investments. And he says they usually provide a return. The architect says there is a great chance for Johannesburg's city neighborhoods to grow and compete with traditional living in suburbs.

Chapman 说,他的开发可能需要一些类似的投资。他还指出,他们通常会提供回报。这位建筑师说,这是约翰内斯堡城市街区发展以及与郊区传统生活方式竞争的大好机会。

He says that as a designer of cities, he believes that is where the future lies.


"V" Is For Energy Efficiency


No matter where people are making new homes and offices, saving energy is important. For us humans, the goal can be difficult. But for some of our feathered friends, being energy efficient comes naturally. Just take a look up there.


Scientists at Britain's Royal Veterinary College in London may have solved a mystery that has puzzled us for years. Why do flocks of birds often fly in a formation that looks similar to the letter "V"? The answer is, they say, because it saves energy.


This is how it works. Many drivers know that being behind a large truck can save you gasoline. That is because the truck is pushing a lot of air around it. The car faces less resistance because a partial vacuum – an empty space – is created behind it.


Steven Portugal, a researcher at the Royal Veterinary College, says birds knew that long ago. The scientific team studied Northern Bald Ibises. They placed small devices on the back of each bird. One of the devices, a kind of GPS, recorded the flight plan it followed.

皇家兽医学院的研究人员 Steven Portugal 说,鸟类很久以前就知道这个道理。科研团队研究了北方秃鹮。他们将小型设备置于每个鸟背上。其中一种 GPS 设备记录它的飞行形式。

The other device documented the birds' wing movements. The readings showed that the birds could use the rising stream of air created by the tip – the edge of the wing—of the bird flying in front of it.


Mr. Portugal said it was already known from earlier research that birds could be helped to save their energy by flying in V-formation. But he said his team showed the way the upward stream of air could be put to work.

Portugal 说,以前的研究已经发现鸟类以 V 型飞行可以节省体力。但他说,他的团队证明了这种利用上升气流的方式。

"Scientists had predicted that birds could take advantage of this by flying in a V-formation shape. But actually what no one had been able to do previously was to understand the mechanism by which that upwash could be captured."

“科学家曾预测鸟类可以利用 V 型飞行获得好处。但实际上,没有人能够准确理解这种利用上升气流的机理。”

The Austrian conservation group Waldarappteam and its special aircraft helped the British scientists. With that help they were able to follow the birds on their migration to Italy.

奥地利保护组织 Waldarappteam 和它的特制飞机帮助了这些英国科学家。有了它的帮助,他们可以追踪这些鸟类前往意大利的迁徙。

The GPS navigation devices recorded in real time the position and speed of each bird within the flock. The other devices, the accelerometers, recorded how fast and hard each bird flapped its wings back and forth. The scientists recreated the birds' movements in a computer.

GPS 导航系统实时记录了鸟群中每只鸟的位置和速度。另一个加速度仪则记录了每只鸟前后拍打翅膀的快慢和难易。科学家在电脑中重现了鸟群的飞行。

Jim Usherwood is a Royal Veterinary College professor. He says each bird was very effective in reacting and responding to the movement of the bird just in front of it.

Jim Usherwood 是皇家兽医学院的教授。他说,每只鸟对在它前面飞行的鸟都会做出有效的反应。

"If you can position yourself in the right bit of upwards air, then you can get some kind of benefit."


Scientists now plan to study how the birds decide which bird will lead the flock on yearly migrations across Europe.


My, how time flies when you are having fun! Get it? Flies? Birds? Oh, well. Thank you for spending some time with us. Remember, more Learning English Programs are just seconds away. And world news follows at the beginning of the hour. I'm Jim Tedder in Washington. We'll see you later!