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[翻译]新闻传真 - 黎巴嫩的叙利亚难民缺少食物援助和教育

来源:慢速英语   时间:2014-02-24 10:58:26

From VOA Learning English, this is As It Is.

Welcome back.  I’m Caty Weaver.  On the program today we explore the situation of almost one million Syrian refugees currently living in Lebanon.  More and more flee across the border every day.  The United Nations is concerned about the limited food aid it can provide the refugees.  And it says most refugee children are receiving little or no education.

The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon: today on As It Is.

Many Syrian Refugees in Lebanon Lose Food Aid

United Nations agencies have been forced to reduce food aid to about one out of five Syrian refugees in Lebanon.  Those who get no food say they are falling into deep debt.  VOA reporter Jamie Detmer investigated the situation from Beirut.  Christopher Cruise has his report.

Syrian refugees continue to flee the violence in their country.  Many of them are going to Lebanon.  U.N. aid agencies found it increasingly difficult to provide food assistance to them for most of last year.  Twenty percent of registered refugees had their food aid ended at the end of 2013.

Um-Odai fled the Syrian city of Homs with her husband and five children.  They are living in a shelter in the northern Lebanese city of Tripoli.

She says her family stopped receiving assistance, and now, they owe a lot of money.  Her husband is too sick to look for work.  Four of her children are very young.  Her oldest son has a wife and a newborn.

She says one of her sons works as a laborer on jobs that sometimes last for just one day.  When he finds a job he can bring money to the family.  But Um-Odai says the family owes money to many shops in the area.  They do not know how they will pay their debt.

She says they owe $2,000 after living in Lebanon for a year-and-half.

About eleven thousand Syrian refugees arrive in Lebanon every week.  Negotiators have made little progress in reaching an agreement to end the civil war in Syria.  The flow of Syrian refugees to Lebanon shows no sign of slowing.  A million Syrians will have registered as refugees in Lebanon by the beginning of March if new arrivals continue at the current rate.

Ninette Kelley is the head of the U.N. refugee agency in Lebanon.  She says the U.N. does not have enough food for all of the refugees, so it helps those most at risk.

“Most of last year, blanket food assistance was provided to everybody who was registered, but this is not something that is a normal practice.  But once you have more information you can further target your provision of food assistance according to vulnerability.”

Last year, U.N. agencies worked to establish who were the most at risk among all registered Syrian refugees.  The agencies found 80 percent of the refugees would have no other form of food support without international assistance. The agencies used this information to make some difficult decisions.

“Which meant that there were 20 percent who had been receiving food who were notified that they would no longer receive it on a regular basis.”

But Um-Odai says she does not understand why she and her family are among about 250,000 refugees without food assistance.  She says the decision does not seem reasonable.  She says she and her husband know other refugees in the camp who are in the same situation as they are.  But, she says, those refugees are still receiving U.N. money to buy food and her family is not.

Even those who receive U.N. food aid say life is getting harder and more costly.  They say they, too, are creating debt.

I’m Christopher Cruise.

United Nations officials say one-third of the Syrian refugees fleeing to Lebanon are school-age children.  But the majority of them are not able to go to school.  We return to Caty Weaver, who has more on the situation of these young refugees.

Many Syrian Refugee Children Not Attending School

Eleven-year-old Marah has been in Lebanon for eighteen months.  She lives in an unofficial refugee settlement near the coastal Lebanese city of Tripoli.  Her family had lived on a farm near the Syrian city of Homs.  They fled when a rocket hit their farmhouse during an attack.

Marah is luckier than most of the refugee children in Lebanon: she is attending school.

Marah says it is difficult for her to learn in Lebanon’s French-based educational program.  In Syria, she was taught in Arabic.  She says she speaks Lebanese to understand the other students.  But there are problems.  She says they sometimes insult her and other Syrian students for being refugees.

But Marah at least has a chance of reaching her goal to become a nurse.  In her settlement there are about 200 families.  Only a few of them have children in school.

Media reports about the refugees are mostly about their emergency needs -- like food and medical care.  Those needs take most of the humanitarian aid as well.  But the longer-term needs of the refugees are becoming more central as the Syrian civil war continues.

The lack of educational possibilities for refugee children is a major concern for Ninette Kelley.

“The situation of children is rather dire.  There are over 300,000 new Syrian school-age children, which is the same number of Lebanese children who were registered at Lebanese schools last year.  And while the ministry of education has indicated they could absorb 100,000 in the formal education system that still leaves over 200,000 without a formal education option.”

The U.N. and non-governmental groups are working together to try to provide basic reading and writing classes for children.  It is centering efforts on the temporary refugee settlements that are being created. The Lebanese government has refused permission for the building of official refugee camps.

But, Ms. Kelley says basic reading and writing classes are not going to meet the needs of older children in the camps.

And that’s As It Is for today.  I’m Caty Weaver.  Thanks for joining us.

在今天的节目里,我们将了解目前在黎巴嫩的将近 100 万叙利亚难民的生存状况。每天都有越来越多的人逃过边境。联合国担心黎巴嫩提供给难民的食物援助有限。它还指出,多数难民儿童很少或没有接受教育。

黎巴嫩的很多叙利亚难民缺少食物援助

联合国机构被迫削减了对黎巴嫩 1/5 叙利亚难民的食物援助。那些没有食物的人表示,他们陷入了沉重的债务危机。VOA 记者 Jamie Detmer 调查了贝鲁特的情况。

叙利亚难民仍在不断逃离国内战乱,很多人前往黎巴嫩。联合国援助机构发现,去年大多数时候,为他们提供食物援助变得越来越困难。20%注册难民的食品援助已经在 2013 年年底到期。

Um-Odai 与她的丈夫和 5 个孩子一起逃离了叙利亚城市霍姆斯。他们住在黎巴嫩北部城市的黎波里的一处避难所。

她说,她的家人不再接收援助了,而现在他们欠了很多钱。她的丈夫身体不好,无法工作。她的 4 个孩子还太小,而长子有一位妻子和新生儿。

她说,她的一个儿子在做工人的工作,这些工作有时候只能维持一天。在他找到工作时他可以给家人带来收入。 Um-Odai但说,她家欠了当地很多商店的很多钱。他们不知道如何才能偿还贷款。

她说,在黎巴嫩生活了 1 年半,他们欠了 2000 美元。

每周有 1.1 万名叙利亚难民来到黎巴嫩。叙利亚的谈判代表在达成停战协议方面进展甚微。前往黎巴嫩的叙利亚难民并没有减缓的迹象。如果新的难民仍以目前的速率到来,黎巴嫩在 3 月初以前将会有 100 万登记在册的叙利亚难民。

Ninette Kelley 是联合国难民署黎巴嫩主管。她说,联合国没有足够的食物给所有难民,所以它只能帮助那些最需要的人。

去年的大多数时候,注册难民大体上都可以得到食物援助,但现在不是总能这样了。但如果你有更多信息,就可以根据人群的需求来进一步确定食物援助的目标。

去年,联合国机构调查了所有在册叙利亚难民危机最严重的人。这些机构发现 80% 的难民如果没有国际援助就没有任何食物供应。这些机构利用这些信息做出了艰难的决定。

“这意味着有 20%以往能够获得食物的人将被告知不再获取日常供应。”

但 Um-Odai 说,她不理解为什么她和她的家人属于这 25 万没有食物援助的难民。她说,这项决定似乎并不合理。她说,她和她的丈夫知道营地里有其他与他们状况类似的人,但是他们仍然能收到联合国的钱来购买食物,而她的家庭却不能。

即使那些收到联合国食物援助的人也表示生活变得更艰难、成本更高了。他们说,他们也存在债务问题。

联合国官员称,1/3 逃至黎巴嫩的叙利亚难民是学龄儿童,但他们的大多数都没能去上学。

很多叙利亚难民儿童无法上学

11 岁的 Marah 在黎巴嫩有 18 个月了。她住在黎巴嫩沿海城市的黎波里附近的一个非官方难民聚居点。她的家人曾住在叙利亚城市霍姆斯附近的一个农场。他们的农场在袭击中被炸弹摧毁,因此只得背井离乡。

Marah 比黎巴嫩的大多数难民儿童都要幸运——她可以上学。

Marah 说,对她来说黎巴嫩的法语制教育课程很困难。在叙利亚,她接受的是阿拉伯语教育。她说,她通过黎巴嫩语理解其他学生。但还是存在问题。她说,他们有时候会因为她和其他叙利亚学生是难民而侮辱他们。

但 Marah 至少有机会实现成为护士的目标。在她的聚居区有大约 200 个家庭。只有很少数的孩子能上学。

有关难民的媒体报道大多数都是关于他们的紧急需求的——比如食物和医护。这些需求也占据了大部分的人道主义援助。但随着叙利亚内战的继续,难民的长期需求也越来越重要。

难民儿童缺少教育机会是 Ninette Kelley 的主要担心。

“孩子们的状况非常悲惨。现在有超过 30 万的叙利亚学龄儿童,这和去年注册入学的黎巴嫩学生数量相当。而教育部表示,他们可以吸收 10 万人进入正规教育体系,仍有超过 20 万孩子没有正式教育机会。”

联合国和非政府组织正在共同努力为孩子们提供基本读写课程。他们的精力集中于正在建设的临时难民聚居点。黎巴嫩政府拒绝了建立官方难民营的请求。

但是,Kelley 说,基本的读写课程无法满足难民营大龄儿童的需求。