Welcome back to Everyday Grammar from VOA Learning English.
This is our third episode on phrasal verbs. As you know, a phrasal verb is a phrase with two or more words: a verb and a prepositionor adverb,or both.
Today we look at very current phrasal verbs: ones used with technology. The digital age has created many new words and phrases in English.
The world of technology is fast-changing, and it has broken many traditions. It is natural that the language of computers would also change and be informal.
Not only is the language of technology full of phrasal verbs, it is also full of new nouns. Many of those nouns grew out of phrasal verbs, as you will learn in this episode.
Let’s go back to 1969, when the first verb sent over the Internet was a phrasal verb: log in. To log inis to enter a code, key or password to gain access to the computer’s abilities. We have been logging inever since then. Sometimes we say we have to sign into a web page.
Like now, we started a computer started by hooking upwire cables and then powering it upor turning it on. Some computers took a long time to boot up, or get ready to run programs.
Now, we do not have to wait as long. To install new applications on the computer, users run a set upprogram. Then we click onthe icon, or image, for a program to run it.
After opening a program, you choose commands from a menu. These menus are stored in a pull downor drop downbar near the top of the screen.
A click of the mouse – the hand-held device that guides the cursor around the computer screen – shows more commands on the bar. That bar is often called the navigation bar, or nav bar.
This leads us to our first noun from a phrasal verb, pulldown. When we give instructions to a friend about using a web page, we can say, “Look in the nav barfor the pulldownand choose a command.”
Another verb that describes up-and-down movement on the screen is scroll upor scroll down.A wheel on the mouse allows you to scroll up or scroll downto read a web page. We can click onan arrow to move to the next screen, too.
Storage and other problems
Installing upgradescan sometimes damage files. So, users should always back uptheir files. That is, copy files and folders to another location, like an external disk drive. A user who stores many large files will soon run out ofroom on the computer, so keeping files on an extra hard drive is a good idea.
This phrasal verb became a noun, too. Experts tell us, “Put your backupsin a safe place.”
My parents used to print out their emails because they wanted to keep a permanent copy, and here is another new noun: a printout.
The phrasal verb print outis a separable phrasal verb, like the ones we talked about in a previous episode. That means you can put a pronoun between the verb and preposition, as in “Let me print it outfor you.”
Even when we use passwords, criminals have learned to enter a computer or a network without permission. They are hacking intothe network. Hacking can make computer systems go down,or stop working.
A disaster could happen if the hacker wiped out, or erased all the information on a computer system. That is why you back upyour system.
Internet advertisements, or ads, pop upon the screen over a web page. This created a new noun from the phrasal verb, popup. People said they needed a tool to block those annoying ads, so the “popup blocker”was born. This feature is part of the browsersoftware.
Speaking of browsers, another phrasal verb that became a noun is plug in.You know that you can plug a wire into the wall. Now, we add small programs to perform specifictasks in the computer, and call them plugins.
Companies often will ask for your email address. They create a large list of users from their email addresses. When we sign upto use a website, we key inour name and email address.
The organization running an online service usually asks us to opt in, or choose to receive email messages. Usually those messages are asking us to buy products. There are so many of these emails now that many people try to filter outall messages from advertisers – otherwise known as spam.
Getting off the grid
If you think that the Internet is full of too many advertisements, and your email is nothing but spam, just click on the menu to shut downand turn offyour devices for the day. Get off what we called “the information superhighway” and take a walk outside. Wait! There is one final phrasal verb to describe that: go offline.
For Learning English Everyday Grammar, I’m Jill Robbins.
And I’m John Russell.
Words in This Story
preposition– grammar.a word or group of words that is used with a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object
adverb– grammar.a word that describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a sentence and that is often used to show time, manner, place, or degree
informal– adj. (of language) relaxed in tone; not suited for serious or official speech and writing
cable– n.a group of wires, glass fibers, etc., covered in plastic or rubber and used to carry electricity or electrical signal
upgrade – n.an occurrence in which one thing is replaced by something better, newer, more valuable, etc.
browser– n.a computer program that is used to find and look at information on the Internet
specific– adj.having a particular function or effect
opt– v. to choose to do or be involved in something
filter– v.to remove (something unwanted) by using a filter
spam– n.e-mail that is not wanted or e-mail that is sent to large numbers of people and that consists mostly of advertising