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[翻译]Education Report - Fewer US Students Are Ready for College

来源:慢速英语   时间:2016-05-08 08:09:53

Fewer high school students in the United States were ready for college in 2015, say recent test results.

最近的测试结果表明,2015年越来越少的美国高中生做好了上大学的准备。

Only 37 per cent of seniors scored at or above proficiency level in reading. The number of seniors scoring at or above the proficiency level for mathematics fell to 25 per cent.

只有37%的高中毕业班学生的阅读成绩达到或超过了优秀程度,而数学达到或超过优秀程度的学生人数下降到了25%。

The test is called the National Assessment for Educational Progress, or NAEP. It is also known as the Nation’s Report Card.

该测试被称之为美国国家教育进展评估(National Assessment of Educational Progress),也被称之为国家成绩单。

The U.S. Department of Education has used this test to measure the ability of students in several subjects across the country since 1969.

美国教育部自1969年以来一直使用该测试来衡量全国各地学生在几门学科上能力。

The Education Department collected the scores of 13,200 students for the 2015 mathematics test and 18,700 students for the reading test. The department released the results of those two tests in April.

美国教育部收集了13200名学生2015年的数学测试分数以及18700名学生的阅读测试分数,并于四月份公布了这两项测试的成绩。

The results showed that average mathematics scores have changed little over the past 10 years. But they also showed the average reading score has decreased 5 points since 1992.

成绩表明过去十年数学平均分数变化不大,但是阅读平均分数自1992年以来下降了5分。

The National Assessment Governing Board is the organization that administers the test. Bill Bushaw is the executive director of the organization. He told the Wall Street Journal that he was unhappy with the lack of progress in increasing the skills and knowledge of students.

美国国家评估理事会是负责管理该测试的组织。比尔·布肖(Bill Bushaw)是该组织的执行主任。他对华尔街日报表示,他对提高学生的技能和知识方面缺乏进展表示不满。

“These numbers aren’t going the way we want,” Bushaw said. “We just have to redouble our efforts to prepare our students to close opportunity gaps.”

他说,“这些数字未能取得我们希望的进展,我们必须加倍努力让学生们缩小机会差距。”

The test is scored into four different levels: below basic, basic, proficient and advanced. But the level that officials consider to be college ready is not completely clear. Andrew Ho is a measurement expert who works at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.

该测试分为四个不同的分数层次:不及格、及格、优秀和特优。但是有关官员对做好大学准备所需的分数层次并不明确。安德鲁·豪(Andrew Ho)是哈佛教育研究生院的一位评量专家。

He also helps manage the Nation’s Report Card. Ho told National Public Radio that being college-ready means scoring somewhere between proficient and basic. "This is the [major] problem of standards," Ho said. "You can come up with a different and seemingly defensible standard every day over coffee."

他还帮助管理国家成绩单。豪对美国全国公共电台表示,做好大学准备意味着分数在及格和特优之间。他说,“这是标准问题,你每天喝咖啡时可以提出各种不同的看似站得住脚的标准。”

But, Ho said, the Nation’s Report Card is the best test for examining how the average student in the U.S. performs. Unlike state tests, all students take the same national test and face the same standards. None are trained on how to take the test.

但是豪表示,美国国家成绩单是最好的检查美国学生平均表现的测试。不像州级测试,所有学生参加同样的国家测试并面临相同的标准。没有任何人被培训如何参加这一测试。

This means officials can measure the skills and knowledge of students rather than their test-taking abilities.

这意味着有关官员可以衡量学生们的技能和知识,而不是他们的应试能力。

One major concern is that high schools are not demanding enough from their students. Despite the decrease in test scores, the Education Department reported the high school graduation rate in America was 82 percent in 2015. This is the highest graduation rate ever.

其中一个重要问题是,高中对学生们的要求并不够严格。尽管测试成绩下降,美国教育部报告称,2015年美国高中毕业率是82%。这是有史以来最高的毕业率。

“If you get right down to it, the reading and math required by NAEP, the ACT, the SAT, colleges and careers is much greater than what high schools are saying is sufficient," Ho told NPR.

他对美国全国公共电台表示,“如果你深究下去,NAEP测试、ACT测试、SAT测试、大学和就业对阅读和数学的要求远高于高中所说的标准。”

Another issue is that the number of students scoring at the “below basic” level is increasing. The number of students scoring below basic in math increased from 35 percent to 38 percent between 2013 and 2015. The number of students who scored below basic in reading also increased 3 percentage points to 28 percent in 2015.

另一个问题是,不及格的学生人数正在上升。2013年到2015年期间,数学不及格的学生人数从35%上升到了38%。2015年阅读不及格的学生人数也增加了3个百分点,达到了28%。

Peggy Carr is the acting director for National Center for Educational Statistics, the part of the Education Department in charge of the test. She told the Wall Street Journal that officials think that the lower numbers are not connected to education policies, but to the number of students who are staying in high school. Carr said more students who were at risk of leaving high school without graduating took the test this year.

佩吉·卡尔(Peggy Carr)是美国国家教育统计中心的代理主任,该部门是美国教育部中主管该考试的部门。她对华尔街日报表示,有关官员认为,分数低同教育政策没有关系,而是同高中在校学生人数有关。卡尔表示,今年有更多面临辍学的学生参加了这一考试。

This means more students with histories of poor performance had their abilities measured. Testing more of this type of student may be why the number of students performing at the lower end increased, she suggested.

这意味着有更多历来表现不佳的学生对他们的能力进行了测试。她认为更多这种学生参加测试可能是表现低下的学生人数增加的原因。

“There is a widening of the gap between higher and lower-ability students,” Carr said.

卡尔表示,“能力较高和能力较低学生之间的差距正在扩大。”

Students are not able to use their scores toward the college admissions process the way they do with SAT and ACT scores. That is why some educators claim that students do not try their best on this test. Carr told the Wall Street Journal that the motivation of students is hard to measure. But things like the number of answers left blank shows the level of student interest is the same as in past years. At the time of the test, 42 percent of test-takers said they had been accepted into a four-year college.

学生们在大学招生过程中不能像使用SAT和ACT测试分数一样使用这项分数。这就是为什么一些教育工作者宣称学生们在这项测试中并未尽力。卡尔对华尔街日报表示,学生们的动机很难衡量。但是交白卷的数量等情况表明学生的兴趣水平和往年一样。在测试时,42%的测试者表示,他们已经被4年制大学录取。

I’m Jill Robbins.

Words in This Story

senior – n. US a student in the final year of high school or college

proficiency – n. ability to do something well

report card – n. a written statement of a student's grades that is given to the student's parents (the "Nation's Report Card" is a report to the citizens about how the public schools perform)

administer – v. to manage the operation of (something, such as a company or government)

opportunity gap – n. the ways in which race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, English proficiency, community wealth, familial situations, or other factors contribute to or perpetuate lower educational aspirations, achievement, and attainment for certain groups of students

basic – adj. forming or relating to the first or easiest part of something

advanced – adj. far along in a course of progress or development

standard– n. a level of quality, achievement, etc., that is considered acceptable or desirable

defensible – adj. able to be thought of as good or acceptable

graduation – n.  the act of receiving a diploma or degree from a school, college, or university

ACT – abbr. A test used to test high school students for college admissions in the U.S.; originally an abbreviation of the name “American College Testing”

SAT – abbr. A test widely used for college admissions in the U.S.; originally called the Scholastic Aptitude Test, then the Scholastic Assessment Test

sufficient – adj. having or providing as much as is needed

motivation – n. a force or influence that causes someone to do something