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[翻译]AS IT IS - What is Pneumonia and How Do You Get it?

来源:慢速英语   时间:2016-09-15 12:42:32

This week, presidential candidate Hillary Clinton made news -- not for what she said, but for her health.

这一周,总统候选人希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)出了新闻--不是因为她说了什么,而是因为她的健康。

Her political campaign announced that Clinton had pneumonia after she appeared weak at a public event in New York City. The former Secretary of State left the event suddenly. A video showed several people helping her into a waiting vehicle.

希拉里的政治竞选人员在她非常虚弱地现身于纽约市的一场公共活动之后宣称她得了肺炎。这位前国务卿突然离开了该活动,视频显示数人帮助她进了一辆等着的车里。

So, what is pneumonia? And how does it spread?

那么,什么是肺炎?它又是如何传播的呢?

Simply stated, pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It is treatable and preventable. However, pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children under five. And it was still responsible for nearly one million deaths in 2015. That information comes from the World Health Organization.

简单地说,肺炎就是肺部感染,它可治疗可预防。然而根据世卫组织的信息,肺炎是五岁以下儿童死亡的首要原因,而且2015年它还造成了近一百万人死亡。

Pneumonia most often results from a bacteria called the Streptococcus pneumoniae. But viruses like influenza, and even fungi can cause pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia is the most common kind of the disease. Pneumonia can often result from the flu.

肺炎通常是由一种名为肺炎球菌的细菌导致的。但是流感等病毒,甚至真菌都能引起肺炎。细菌性肺炎是最为常见的一种。肺炎通常是由流感导致的。

Once the disease gets in a person's lungs, the air sacs, or alveoli, that take in oxygen, fill up with fluid. This makes breathing difficult and painful. It can limit the amount of oxygen a person takes into their body with each breath. It also causes coughing and an increase in body temperature. This makes the person feel cold.

一旦这种疾病进入人体肺部,吸收氧气的肺泡就会充满液体,这就会造成呼吸困难和疼痛。它会限制人体每次呼吸时吸入体内的氧气量。它还会引起咳嗽和体温升高,这会使人感觉到冷。

Those most at risk are the very young, the older adults (over the age of 65) and anyone with a weak immune system.

肺炎高危人群是婴幼儿、65岁以上老年人以及免疫系统虚弱者。

Identification and Treatment

诊断和治疗

The signs of pneumonia look like those of the flu and the common cold. So, it is best to seek out trained medical help.

肺炎的症状类似于流感和普通感冒。因此,最好是寻求专业的医疗帮助。

The American Lung Association says a doctor will listen to your lungs for "crackling, bubbling, and rumbling sounds" while you breathe. A follow up chest X-ray test may also be necessary.

美国肺脏协会表示,医生会听你呼吸时肺部是否有“噼里啪啦、气泡和轰隆隆的声音”。随后的胸部X光检查也是有必要的。

For viral pneumonia, doctors can tell the patient to take anti-viral medication. The disease can often last 1-3 weeks in people, who are generally healthy.

对于病毒性肺炎,医生会让病人服用抗病毒药物。这种疾病会在普通健康人身上持续1到3周。

For people who get bacterial pneumonia, treatment for mild cases can include antibiotics, rest and fluids. The recovery time is similar to that for viral pneumonia.

对于患上细菌性肺炎的人来说,轻度病例的治疗包括抗生素、休息以及补充液体。康复时间同病毒性肺炎类似。

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is another bacterial form of the disease, and known as “walking pneumonia.” It is generally mild, but a full recovery may take an extended period of time, especially for the young, unhealthy and older adults.

肺炎支原体是另一种细菌形式的肺炎,它被称之为“会走路的肺炎”。它通常是轻度的,但是全面康复可能需要很长一段时间周期,尤其是年幼者、虚弱者以及老年人。

Prevention

预防

Preventing pneumonia requires the same steps used to prevent colds and the flu.

预防肺炎需要采取同感冒和流感相同的步骤。

The American Lung Association states that pneumonia is often spread through coughing or even breathing. The group warns that people who don't show signs of pneumonia can also spread the disease.

美国肺脏协会指出,肺炎通常通过咳嗽甚至是呼吸传播。该协会警告说,未表现出肺炎症状的人也能传播这种疾病。

It urges Americans to get a flu vaccination every year. In addition, "Children younger than 5, and adults 65 and older should get vaccinated against pneumococcal pneumonia."

该协会督促美国人每年接种流感疫苗。此外,小于5岁的儿童以及65岁以上的老年人应该接种肺炎球菌性肺炎疫苗。

The American Lung Association also urges people to wash your hands early and often, don't smoke and get plenty of rest and exercise.

美国肺脏协会还督促人们尽早以及经常洗手,不要吸烟,并得到充足的休息和锻炼。

I'm Ashley Thompson.

Words in This Story

fungi - n. plural for the word fungus. any one of a group of living things that often look like plants, but have no flowers, and that live on dead or decaying things

coughing - v. forcing air through one's throat with short, loud noises

immune system - n. the body's natural defenses against disease

crackling - adj. a series of short, sharp noises

bubbling - adj. of or related to small balls of air or gas inside a liquid

rumbling - adj. a low, heavy sound or series of sounds