Americans are preparing for the first of three debates involving the candidates for president.
The first debate takes place on September 26. It will be held at Hofstra University in the city of Hempstead, New York.
The first debate will include the candidates of the two main parties. Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton is the nominee of the Democratic Party. The Republican candidate is businessman Donald Trump.
首场辩论将囊括美国两家主要政党的候选人。前国务卿希拉里·克林顿（Hillary Clinton）是民主党总统提名人，共和党总统候选人是商人唐纳德·川普（Donald Trump）。
The other parties will not be represented at the first debate. The Libertarian Party, for example, has nominated former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson as its presidential candidate. The Green Party chose Jill Stein, who also served as its candidate in the 2012 elections.
其它党派不会参加首场辩论。自由党提名了前墨西哥州长加里·约翰逊（Gary Johnson)为该党的总统候选人，绿党选择了吉尔·斯坦（Jill Stein），他也是该党2012年大选的总统候选人。
The moderator of the first debate will be television news anchor Lester Holt.
The debate will be 90 minutes long. The three topics for debate will be America’s direction, achieving prosperity and securing America. Each topic will be debated for close to 30 minutes.
Holt will begin each topic with a question, and each candidate will have two minutes to respond. Candidates will also have the opportunity to respond to each other.
Many think the first debate could make history by drawing the largest audience ever to watch an American political event.
History of presidential debates
American presidential debates and the media have a 56-year history. In 1960, Republican Vice President Richard Nixon debated Democratic Senator John F. Kennedy.
美国总统辩论和媒体拥有56年历史。1960年，共和党副总统理查德·尼克松(Richard Nixon)同参议员约翰·F·肯尼迪（John F. Kennedy）展开了辩论。
The subject of the debate was domestic policy. The issues they discussed included education, health care, farming, the economy, labor and the Cold War.
But what the 1960 debates showed was how television was changing politics. In the first debate, radio listeners said Nixon won. Those who watched on television said Kennedy was the better debater.
The difference in the audience’s perceptions had to do with the candidates’ appearances. Kennedy looked tanned and youthful on television. Nixon wore a gray suit that blended into the television studio background. Nixon – who was recovering from an illness -- also looked pale and thin.
A few months later, Kennedy won a narrow victory in the election.
In 1980, President Jimmy Carter debated challenger Ronald Reagan. Carter led in the political polls before the debate.
1980年，吉米·卡特（Jimmy Carter）总统同挑战者罗纳德·里根（Ronald Reagan）辩论。卡特在辩论前的民调中领先。
But Reagan was a former actor and comfortable in front of a studio camera. Reagan’s relaxed performance during the debate helped secure him an easy victory.
The 1992 debates featured three candidates. President George H.W. Bush faced challengers Bill Clinton and Ross Perot.
1992年这场辩论的特色是有三位候选人。乔治·H.W·布什(George H.W. Bush)总统面临比尔·克林顿（Bill Clinton）和罗斯·佩罗（Ross Perot）的挑战。
During their conversation, Bush checked his watch. Some thought Bush’s glance at his watch as a sign he was bored with the debate.
Bill Clinton went on to win that election.
I’m Bruce Albe.
Words in This Story
Democratic Party – n. one of the two major political parties in the United States
Republican – n. a member of the Republican party of the U.S.
Libertarian Party – n. a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties
Green Party – n. a political party in the United States that promotes environmental issues and non-violence
moderator – n. someone who leads a discussion in a group and tells each person when to speak
news anchor – n. a person who presents news during a news program on television or on the radio
Cold War – n. the nonviolent conflict between the U.S. and the former U.S.S.R. after 1945
perception – n. the way you think about or understand someone or something
tanned – adj. having skin that has been made darker by the sun
bored – v. to make someone annoyed by being uninteresting