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【科学新闻】谷歌被曝强行追踪用户 Google exposed to forcibly track users

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-11 15:53:56

Many Android and iPhone owners use Google services on their mobile devices.Some of these services use GPS technology to collect information about the places people go.


许多Android和iPhone用户在他们的移动设备上使用Google服务。其中一些服务使用GPS技术来收集人们去的地方的信息。


One of the most widely used location services is Google Maps.When someone uses Google Maps,information about times and locations are recorded and stored.


最广泛使用的定位服务之一是谷歌地图。当有人使用谷歌地图时,有关时间和地点的信息会被记录和存储。


Google also uses tracking tools with other services.Weather apps,for example,are designed to identify a user's location to provide local weather information.Even some Google internet searches can result in the collection of information about exactly where a person was when the search was made.


谷歌还将跟踪工具与其他服务结合使用。例如,天气应用程序被设计用来识别用户的位置,以提供本地天气信息。甚至一些Google的互联网搜索也能收集到一个人在搜索时的确切位置的信息。


Google says it collects the data to improve localized experiences for its users.But such practices have also raised privacy concerns.Privacy activists have called on Google and other major technology companies to make it easier for users to turn off location services if they do not want to be tracked.


谷歌表示,它收集这些数据是为了改善用户的本地化体验。但这种做法也引发了隐私问题。隐私保护人士呼吁谷歌和其他主要技术公司,如果用户不想被跟踪,可以更方便地关闭位置服务。

An investigation by the Associated Press,or AP,suggests this process is not as easy as it might seem.The investigation found that Google continues to collect location information even on users who have changed their privacy settings.


美联社(美联社)的一项调查显示,这一过程并不像看上去那么容易。调查发现,谷歌继续收集位置信息,即使是更改了隐私设置的用户。


The AP says the results of its investigation were confirmed by computer science researchers at Princeton University in the American state of New Jersey.


美联社说,调查结果得到了美国新泽西州普林斯顿大学计算机科学研究人员的证实。


Google's influence in the mobile device industry is far-reaching.About two billion people worldwide use Google-developed Android devices.In addition,hundreds of millions of iPhone owners use Google for maps or for making searches.


谷歌在移动设备行业的影响力是深远的。全球约有20亿人使用谷歌开发的安卓设备。此外,数以亿计的iPhone用户使用Google进行地图或搜索。


In some ways,Google is clear about asking permission to use location information.For example,Google Maps will seek approval from a user to give the app access to locations so it can provide directions.If a user agrees to let Google collect location information over time,Google Maps will show this history in a"timeline"that shows the person's daily movements.


在某种程度上,谷歌明确要求获得使用位置信息的许可。例如,谷歌地图将寻求用户的批准,让应用程序访问位置,以便它可以提供方向。如果用户同意让谷歌随着时间的推移收集位置信息,谷歌地图将在显示此人每日移动的“时间线”中显示这段历史。


Google also has a"Location History"setting,which it explains on its support page.The company says any user can turn off Location History at any time."With Location History off,the places you go are no longer stored,"Google states.The company says when Location History is turned off for a user's account,it is turned off for all devices linked to that Google account.


谷歌也有一个“位置历史”设置,它在其支持页面上解释。该公司表示,任何用户都可以随时关闭位置历史记录。”在关闭位置历史记录的情况下,你去的地方将不再被存储。该公司表示,当用户帐户的位置历史记录被关闭时,链接到该谷歌帐户的所有设备都将被关闭。


But the AP investigation found this does not appear to be true.It found that Google continued to save location history even if a user had turned off Location History.Turning off Location History only stopped Google from creating a timeline of locations the user had visited.


但美联社调查发现,这似乎并非事实。它发现,即使用户关闭了位置历史记录,谷歌也会继续保存位置历史记录。关闭位置历史记录只会阻止谷歌创建用户访问过的位置的时间线。


One of the tests the AP carried out involved Princeton privacy researcher Gunes Acar.The news agency was able to track his movements and identify visited locations–including his home–over several days in the New York City area.


美联社进行的其中一项测试涉及普林斯顿大学隐私研究员冈斯·阿卡尔。这家通讯社能够追踪他的行踪,并确定他在纽约市区的访问地点,包括他的家。


Acar was carrying an Android phone with Location History turned off.


Acar携带的Android手机的位置历史记录已关闭。


Other Princeton researchers confirmed the AP's test findings on multiple mobile devices.


普林斯顿大学的其他研究人员证实了美联社在多个移动设备上的测试结果。


Jonathan Mayer is a Princeton computer scientist and former technologist with the Federal Communications Commission.He disagrees with Google's methods for storing location data,which he says can be unclear for users.


乔纳森·迈尔是普林斯顿大学的计算机科学家,曾任联邦通信委员会的技术专家。他不同意谷歌存储位置数据的方法,他说用户可能不清楚这些方法。


"If you're going to allow users to turn off something called'Location History,'then all the places where you maintain location history should be turned off,"Mayer said."That seems like a pretty straightforward position to have."


迈耶说:“如果你想让用户关闭一个叫做‘位置历史’的东西,那么你维护位置历史的所有地方都应该关闭。”这似乎是一个相当直截了当的立场。”


In answer to a request for comment from the AP,Google said it uses several location tracking tools.


在回答美联社的置评请求时,谷歌表示,它使用了几种位置跟踪工具。


"There are a number of different ways that Google may use location to improve people's experience,including:Location History,Web and App Activity,and through device-level Location Services,"the company said in a statement.


谷歌在一份声明中说:“谷歌可以通过多种不同的方式利用定位来改善人们的体验,包括:定位历史、网络和应用活动,以及通过设备级的定位服务。”。


Google says users can stop the saving of all location markers by turning off another setting.That setting,however,is not clearly identified as being connected to location tracking.The setting is called"Web and App Activity."It is activated on new devices.The tool stores different kinds of information from Google apps and websites to a user's Google account.


谷歌表示,用户可以通过关闭另一个设置来停止保存所有位置标记。然而,这一设置并没有被明确地标识为与位置跟踪相连接。此设置称为“Web和应用程序活动”。它在新设备上激活。该工具将不同种类的信息从谷歌应用程序和网站存储到用户的谷歌账户。


How to prevent further tracking


如何防止进一步跟踪


The easiest way to block further location tracking on any device is to go to the website myactivity.google.com,which permits users to change Google account settings.On the upper left drop-down list,go to"Activity Controls."Turn off both"Web&App Activity"and"Location History."This should prevent exact location markers from being stored to your Google account.


在任何设备上阻止进一步位置跟踪的最简单方法是访问myactivity.google.com网站,该网站允许用户更改谷歌帐户设置。在左上角的下拉列表中,转到“活动控件”。同时关闭“Web&App活动”和“位置历史记录”。这将防止准确的位置标记存储到您的Google帐户中。


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