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【词汇典故】上校的历史由来 History of Colonel

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-11 10:33:11

The pronunciation of some words can cause trouble for people learning English.For example,words such as"circle,""sir,""certainly"and"surprise"all sound as if they begin with the same letters.But they don't.


有些单词的发音会给人们学习英语带来麻烦。例如,“圆圈”、“先生”、“当然”和“惊喜”等词听起来好像都是以同一个字母开头的。但他们没有。


Knowing language of origin for an unknown or new word–its roots–can help you pronounce the word the right way.Just ask any student who has ever competed in a spelling bee.One question that spelling bee contestants can ask the judges during the event is,"What is the language of origin?"


了解一个未知或新单词的起源语言——它的词根——可以帮助你正确发音。只要问问参加过拼字比赛的学生就知道了。拼写比赛选手在比赛中可以问评委一个问题:“什么是起源语?”


The development or evolution of a word over time can also play a part in how we say it.In fact,both origin and evolution are involved in the pronunciation of the word"colonel."


随着时间的推移,一个词的发展或演变也会影响我们的表达方式。事实上,“上校”这个词的发音既有起源,也有演变


First,what does"colonel"mean?


首先,“上校”是什么意思?


A colonel is a military official.In the United States,it can mean an officer in the Army,Air Force or Marine Corps.


上校是军官。在美国,它可以指陆军、空军或海军陆战队的军官。


Colonel is spelled c-o-l-o-n-e-l.So,why do Americans say colonel as if it is spelled k-e-r-n-e-l?Adding to the confusion is that"kernel"is a word of its own and one that has several meanings.


上校的拼写是c-o-l-o-n-e-l。那么,为什么美国人把上校说成k-e-r-n-e-l?更让人困惑的是,“内核”是一个独立的词,有多种含义。

But,let's get back to"colonel"...the c-o-l-o-n-e-l one.


但是,让我们回到“上校”。。。c-o-l-o-n-e-l型。


We know that many languages borrow and even steal words from other languages.The English language is probably the biggest thief of them all!It stole"colonel"from at least two countries–maybe even three.


我们知道,许多语言从其他语言中借用甚至窃取单词。英语可能是其中最大的窃贼!它从至少两个国家偷走了“上校”,甚至三个国家。


First,let's talk about Italy.


首先,让我们谈谈意大利。


By the 15th century,Italian forces were known for being good at war.So,many Italian war terms spread across Europe,including the word"colonel."It comes from the Italian word'colonnello.'This is the position given to the officer responsible for a small force or column of soldiers.


到了15世纪,意大利军队以擅长战争而闻名。因此,许多意大利战争术语遍布欧洲,其中包括“上校”一词。它来自意大利的“科隆内洛”一词。这是给负责一支小部队或一列士兵的军官的职位。


Then there's the influence of France on"colonel."


还有法国对“上校”的影响


The French also took this word from the Italians.But when they added it to their language,they changed the word"colonnelo"to"coronel."Language experts say this is because the French wanted to have the"r"sound in the word,instead of the two"l"sounds.


法国人也从意大利人那里得到这个词。但是当他们把这个词加到他们的语言中时,他们把“colonnelo”改成了“coronel”,语言专家说这是因为法国人希望在这个词中有“r”的发音,而不是两个“l”的发音。


Finally,let's not forget Spain.


最后,让我们不要忘记西班牙。


At the same time,the Spanish were also pronouncing c-o-l-o-n-e-l as k-e-r-n-e-l.It is possible that both the French and the Spanish pronunciation affected the English version of the word.


同时,西班牙人也将c-o-l-o-n-e-l发音为k-e-r-n-e-l,可能法语和西班牙语的发音都影响了这个词的英语版本。


In addition to country of origin,there is something else at play in the word history of"colonel":written versus spoken language.


除了原籍国,在“上校”一词的历史中,还有其他一些东西在起作用:书面语和口语。


From the very beginning,when this word came into English in the 1500s,there were two versions of spelling and two pronunciations.


从一开始,这个词在16世纪进入英语时,就有两种拼写和两种发音。


By around the 17th century,the word began appearing in military treaties across Europe.So,the written form of the word(colonel)and the spoken("kernel")were both being used.


大约在17世纪,这个词开始出现在整个欧洲的军事条约中。因此,这个词的书面形式(上校)和口头形式(核心)都被使用。


In English,a combination won out.Colonel was spelled c-o-l-o-n-e-l but pronounced"kernel."


在英语中,组合获胜。上校的拼写是c-o-l-o-n-e-l,但发音是“kernel”


Please let me apologize from the bottom of my heart for our crazy and sometimes confusing English pronunciations!


请让我从心底为我们疯狂的,有时混乱的英语发音道歉!


That's all for this Words and Their Stories.Join us again next week when we talk about more words and expressions in American English.


这就是这些话和他们的故事。下周,当我们谈论更多的美国英语单词和表达时,请再次加入我们。


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