首页 > VOA慢速英语 > 经济报道 > 【经济报道】世界贸易组织败诉争端解决机构 The World Trade Organization Loses Dispute Settlement Body

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【经济报道】世界贸易组织败诉争端解决机构 The World Trade Organization Loses Dispute Settlement Body

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-10 18:10:15

A group that decides on trade dispute appeals at the World Trade Organization (WTO) will not be able to do work after Tuesday.

The terms of two judges on the WTO's Appellate Body end on December tenth. That leaves only one judge in the group – not enough to make decisions under WTO rules.

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决定在世界贸易组织(WTO)进行贸易争端上诉的小组将无法在星期二之后开展工作。

世贸组织上诉机构的两名法官的任期于12月10日结束。这样一来,小组中只剩下一名法官–不足以根据WTO规则做出决定。


Among the disputes still undecided are seven cases that were brought against the United States last year. They involve U.S. President Donald Trump's move to place import taxes on foreign steel and aluminum because they represent a threat to U.S. national security.

The WTO's Dispute Settlement Body creates a panel that can help decide a trade case. However, if decisions are appealed, they must go to the Appellate Body for a final decision.


在尚未确定的争端中,去年有七起针对美国的案件。它们涉及美国总统唐纳德·特朗普对外国钢铁和铝征收进口税的举动,因为这对美国国家安全构成威胁。

WTO的争端解决机构创建了一个小组,可以帮助确定贸易案。但是,如果对决定提出上诉,则必须前往上诉机构做出最终决定。


Supporters of the WTO now say that nations can use tariffs and sanctions to limit imports, increasing protectionism and hurting trade.

"We are in a crisis moment for our global trading system,'' said U.S. Representative Stephanie Murphy, a Democrat from Florida. "As of tomorrow, the court will cease to exist.''

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世贸组织的支持者现在说,各国可以利用关税和制裁来限制进口,增加贸易保护主义并损害贸易。

来自佛罗里达的民主党人美国代表斯蒂芬妮·墨菲说:“全球贸易体系正处于危机时刻。从明天起,法院将不复存在。”


The loss of a global trade court of final appeals, Murphy said, is "really dangerous for American businesses.''

The appeals court should have seven judges. But their numbers have slowly decreased. That is because the United States - under Presidents George W. Bush, Barack Obama and Donald Trump - has stopped new judges from being appointed to the court to protest the way the WTO operates.


墨菲说,失去全球终审法院的上诉对美国企业来说确实是危险的。

上诉法院应有七名法官。但他们的人数已逐渐减少。这是因为在乔治·W·布什总统,巴拉克·奥巴马总统和唐纳德·特朗普总统的领导下,美国已停止任命新法官出庭,以抗议世贸组织的运作方式。


Trump and his top trade negotiator, Robert Lighthizer, are critics of the WTO. They argue that the trade organization holds back America's ability to answer unfair trading methods used by China and other countries.

Many countries have criticized the WTO's system for settling trade disagreements. Critics say judges take too long to make a decision, and that they often overreach in their rulings. They also say the organization is not able to deal with the challenge of China's mix of market capitalism and state control.

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特朗普和他的主要贸易谈判代表罗伯特·莱特希泽(Robert Lighthizer)是世贸组织的批评者。他们认为贸易组织阻碍了美国回答中国和其他国家使用的不公平贸易方法的能力。

许多国家批评世贸组织解决贸易分歧的制度。批评人士说,法官花时间太久才能做出决定,而且他们的裁决经常超出范围。他们还说,该组织无法应对中国市场资本主义和国家控制相结合的挑战。


Getting the WTO to reform is difficult because it requires agreement from its 164 member countries.

The departure of the judges was met with uncertainty or anger by several WTO countries.

Zhang Xiangchen is China's ambassador to the WTO. He said in a statement that he was observing the event by wearing the black tie his wife had given him for funerals.


使世贸组织改革很困难,因为它需要其164个成员国的同意。

世贸组织的一些国家对法官的离任充满不确定性或愤怒。

张相臣是中国加入世贸组织的大使。他在一份声明中说,他是通过穿着妻子送给他的葬礼的黑色领带来观察事件的


In a statement released Tuesday, Phil Hogan, said "this is a regrettable and very serious blow to the international...trade system." He is the European Union commissioner for trade.

The EU and several countries have been working to set up an unofficial appellate body. It might make decisions about future trade disagreements using former judges. However, it would not be permanent and it is uncertain how many countries might agree to such a group.


菲尔·霍根(Phil Hogan)在周二发表的声明中说:“这是对国际贸易体系的遗憾和非常严重的打击。”他是欧盟贸易专员。

欧盟和一些国家一直在努力建立一个非官方的上诉机构。它可能会使用前任法官来决定未来的贸易分歧。但是,这将不是永久性的,并且不确定有多少国家会同意这一团体。


The WTO was set up in 1995 to improve international trade and settle trade disputes.

But the process has proved difficult. The appellate panel is well-known for missing deadlines, a problem that worsened as it lost judges. It is supposed to rule within 90 days but last year needed about 395 days to make decisions.


世界贸易组织成立于1995年,旨在改善国际贸易和解决贸易争端。

但是事实证明这个过程很困难。上诉小组因缺少最后期限而闻名,随着失去法官,这一问题变得更加严重。它应该在90天内做出裁决,但去年需要大约395天才能做出决定。


Since 1995, it is estimated that 592 cases have been brought to the WTO. The appellate body has made 120 decisions, covering 162 of those cases. Most of the rest of the cases were dropped or decided outside the WTO process.

自1995年以来,估计已向世贸组织提起592起案件。上诉机构已做出120项裁决,其中包括162项案件。其余大多数案件是在世贸组织程序之外撤消或裁定的。


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

appellate - adj.having the power to review and change the decisions of a lower court

panel –n. a group of people who answer questions, give advice or provide an opinion about an issue

tariff – n.a tax on goods coming into or leaving a country

sanctions – n.an action that is taken or an order that is given to force a country to obey international laws by limiting or stopping trade with that country, by not allowing economic aid for that country

global - adj.involving the entire world

challenge – n.a difficult task or problem

blow –n. something that is done against something or that causes damage to something


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