首页 > VOA慢速英语 > 健康报道 > 【健康报道】肥胖与大脑发育有联系吗? Obesity and Brain Development: Is There a Link?

文章详情

【健康报道】肥胖与大脑发育有联系吗? Obesity and Brain Development: Is There a Link?

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-10 17:20:43

In the United States, about 25 million children are either overweight or obese.

A new study explored how being overweight or obese might affect brain development in children.

image.png


在美国,约有2500万儿童超重或肥胖。

一项新的研究探讨了超重或肥胖可能如何影响儿童的大脑发育。


A report on the study appeared this month in JAMA Pediatrics, a publication of the American Medical Association. The writers suggested a link between body mass index, brain development and "executive functions, such as working memory."

An editorial published with the report called the study an important addition to growing evidence of a link between weight, brain structure and mental function. It also warned against misinterpreting the findings.


这项研究的报告发表在本月的美国医学会出版的JAMA Pediatrics中。作者建议体重指数,大脑发育与“执行功能,例如工作记忆”之间存在联系。

该报告发表的社论称这项研究是对体重,大脑结构和心理功能之间联系的越来越多证据的重要补充。它还警告不要误解调查结果。


The study

The study involved 3,190 U.S. boys and girls, aged 9 and 10. Researchers had height and weight measurements and MRI scans of their brains. MRI is short for magnetic resonance imaging, a method used to take pictures of organs and tissues within the body.

The children took computer-based tests of mental function, including memory, language, reasoning and impulse control. Nearly 1,000 of the kids — almost 1 in 3 — were overweight or obese, similar to levels nationwide.


这项研究涉及3190名9岁和10岁的美国男孩和女孩。研究人员对他们的大脑进行了身高和体重测量以及MRI扫描。 MRI是磁共振成像的缩写,磁共振成像是一种用于拍摄体内器官和组织照片的方法。

孩子们进行了基于计算机的心理功能测试,包括记忆,语言,推理和冲动控制。与全国范围内的水平相似,近1,000名儿童(近三分之一)为超重或肥胖。

image.png


Researchers found differences in the brain scan images of the heaviest children. They observed slightly less volume -- the amount of space -- in the brain behind the forehead. This area controls what are known as "executive function" tasks. Such tasks include things like planning, controlling impulses and dealing with two or more activities at the same time.

Compared with normal-weight children, the differences were small, noted Scott Mackey, a neuroscientist at the University of Vermont.


研究人员发现最重的孩子的大脑扫描图像存在差异。他们观察到额头后面的大脑的容积(空间量)略少。该区域控制所谓的“执行功能”任务。这些任务包括计划,控制冲动以及同时处理两项或多项活动。

佛蒙特大学的神经科学家Scott Mackey指出,与正常体重的儿童相比,差异很小。


The heaviest children also had slightly worse results on the computer-based tests of executive function. But it is unknown whether any of the differences had much of an effect on children's behavior or performance in school. Those are the opinions of Mackey and Jennifer Laurent, a University of Vermont researcher. Laurent was the lead author of the report on the study.

It is also unclear how the differences relate to weight. Mackey said other factors not measured in the study, including physical activity and good nutrition, are likely important.


在基于计算机的执行功能测试中,最重的孩子的成绩也稍差。但尚不清楚这些差异是否对孩子的行为或学业成绩有很大影响。这些是Mackey和佛蒙特大学研究员Jennifer Laurent的意见。洛朗(Laurent)是该研究报告的主要作者。

还不清楚差异如何与体重有关。麦克基说,这项研究中未测量的其他因素,包括体育锻炼和良好的营养,可能很重要。


Research in adults has linked obesity with low-level inflammation throughout the body. The condition can damage blood vessels and may increase risks for heart disease and loss of mental ability.

Some studies have also found less brain volume in obese adults. Researchers suspect that the decreased brain volume could be from inflammation.


对成年人的研究表明,肥胖与全身低度炎症有关。这种状况可能会损害血管,并可能增加心脏病和智力丧失的风险。

一些研究还发现肥胖成年人的大脑体积较小。研究人员怀疑大脑体积的减少可能是由于炎症引起的。


The new study raises the possibility that inflammatory changes affecting weight, brain structure and brain function might begin in childhood.

这项新研究提出了影响体重,大脑结构和大脑功能的炎症变化可能始于儿童期的可能性。

image.png


Be careful interpreting the results

Eliana Perrin is a doctor and specialist of children's health at Duke University in North Carolina. She co-wrote the editorial published in JAMA Pediatrics. She says that people should be careful about how they interpret the study.

"We don't know which direction these relationships go nor do they suggest that people with obesity are not as smart as people at a healthy weight," she said.


Eliana Perrin是北卡罗来纳州杜克大学的儿童健康医生和专家。她与他人合着了《 JAMA儿科》上的社论。她说人们应该对他们如何解释研究保持谨慎。

她说:“我们不知道这些关系朝哪个方向发展,也不表明肥胖者不像健康体重者那么聪明。”


The latest research confirms results of earlier studies in children and adults, but it leaves many questions unanswered, said Marci Gluck. Gluck is with the U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. She was not part of the research, and warned people against making a link between executive function and intelligence.


马克西·格鲁克(Marci Gluck)说,最新的研究证实了早期在儿童和成人中进行的研究的结果,但仍未解决许多问题。格鲁克(Gluck)在美国国立糖尿病与消化系统和肾脏疾病研究所任职。她不是研究的一部分,并警告人们不要在执行功能和智力之间建立联系。



Natasha Schvey is an obesity researcher with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. She called the study impressive, but noted that many factors influence people's diets and obesity.

"We know from a lot of really good research that obesity is not as much in an individual's control as we think it is. People talk about willpower — that's a very small part of the equation," she said. "There are much bigger contributors to our weight and a lot of it is genetic."


娜塔莎·施维(Natasha Schvey)是美国卫生科学统一服务大学的肥胖研究人员。她称这项研究令人印象深刻,但指出许多因素会影响人们的饮食和肥胖。

她说:“我们从许多非常好的研究中知道,肥胖并没有像我们认为的那样受个人控制。人们谈论的是意志力,这只是等式的很小一部分。” “我们体重的贡献更大,很多是遗传因素。”


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

obese– adj.very fat; fat in a way that is unhealthy

body mass index – n.a measurement that shows the amount of fat in your body and that is based on your weight and height

function– n.the special purpose or activity for which a thing exists or is used

misinterpret– v.to misunderstand or be mistaken; to get the wrong idea

editorial – n.a published report that gives the opinions of the editors or publishers of a newspaper or magazine

impulse – n.a sudden strong desire to do something

factor– n.a fact or influence that influences a result

inflammation– n.a physical condition in which part of the body becomes reddened, hot and often painful

impressive– adj.moving or touching


链接:

没有证据证明可以防止跑步受伤 No Evidence Stretching Prevents Running Injuries

照顾好你的牙齿,照顾好你的心脏 Take Care of Your Teeth, Take Care of Your Heart

托福写作评分标准介绍

托福写作复议成功率高吗

托福写作开头结尾段模板


推荐文章