The story of Sim Ark helps explain a problem in Cambodia that has health experts concerned: fewer Cambodian women are breastfeeding their babies.
Before giving birth to her second child, Sim Ark said she did not think much about what a workplace needed to support a new mother.
After her first child was born, she stayed at home. But now the 29-year-old works at the You Li International factory in Bavet city, in Cambodia.
第一个孩子出生后，她待在家里。但是现在，这位29岁的年轻人正在柬埔寨Bavet市的You Li International工厂工作。
"I want to have a daycare facility right in my workplace so that I can visit my baby while working," Sim Ark told VOA.
She had been working at You Li before giving birth to her son Ham Ya Oudom. After her son was born, her supervisors began calling her. Within three months she returned to work because she did not want to risk losing her job.
在生下儿子Ham Ya Oudom之前，她曾在You Li工作。她儿子出生后，她的上司开始给她打电话。在三个月内，她重返工作岗位，因为她不想冒险失去工作。
Since she was not at home during the day, Sim Ark was unable to breastfeed her newborn son. Instead the child received a breastmilk substitute, known as formula, from a bottle. At night, he changed back to breast milk unless Sim Ark worked overtime, which she said causes her milk to stop flowing.
由于白天她不在家，因此Sim Ark无法母乳喂养她刚出生的儿子。取而代之的是，孩子从瓶子里得到了母乳代用品，称为配方奶。晚上，除非Sim Ark加班，否则他会换回母乳，她说这会使她的母乳停止流动。
On average, a 10-week-old baby consumes seven containers of infant formula within a month. Each container costs about $12. Most workers in the clothing industry earn about $182 each month. Sim Ark and other workers would like to be able to breastfeed their children until they are at least 6 months old, as doctors recommend. But they do not know how to raise the issue with their employers.
平均而言，一个10周大的婴儿一个月内要食用7个容器的婴儿配方奶粉。每个集装箱的成本约为12美元。服装行业的大多数工人每月收入约182美元。 Sim Ark和其他工作人员希望能够按照医生的建议，给孩子哺育至少6个月大的孩子。但是他们不知道如何向雇主提出这个问题。
"I'm not sure how it (would) look like if we had [a daycare facility in a factory]. Maybe a family member could come and help [in the facility] to look after the baby," Sim Ark said, only to add, "Then nobody would be available to do the work at home."
Her return to work helps explain why the rate of breastfeeding is decreasing in Cambodia, a change that worries child development experts.
United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, said government data shows that 74 percent of Cambodia's children younger than 6 months old were breastfed in 2010. By 2014, the most recent year for which information is available, that number had fallen sharply. The country went from having one of the highest rates of breastfeeding to a midlevel rate of 65 percent.
Cristian Munduate is a UNICEF representative in Cambodia. She called this change a major decrease. She also described breastfeeding as "the best practice for a child during its first 6 months of life — the first natural vaccine that a child receives."
UNICEF suggests that correct breastfeeding practices could prevent an estimated 823,000 child deaths every year worldwide. The medical publication The Lancet reports that breastfeeding improves mental development, success in school and future earning potential.
Alive & Thrive is an international effort to support mother and infant health. It released a report on the costs of not breastfeeding in Cambodia. It said three major illnesses in children and mothers could sharply rise because of the fall in breastfeeding. Diarrhea and pneumonia in children and type II diabetes in mothers are believed to be kept under control by the practice.
The Alive & Thrive report also suggests Cambodia could lose $83 million a year because of future mental development losses linked with a lack of breastfeeding.
Several reasons for fall in breastfeeding
UNICEF warns that a lack of community and government support for breastfeeding is leading to the decrease. The UN agency also blames the difficulty of balancing infant care with a job, and the aggressive marketing of infant formula.
Cristian Munduate says there are about 2.4 million women ages 15 to 34 in the country's labor force. Cambodia has a law guaranteeing many women the chance to breastfeed.
But the law and reality are two different things, said Lim Buyheak. The 35-year-old is studying clinical psychology at Vietnam National University.
She has breastfed her daughter since she was born five months ago. She bought an electronic breast milk collection device for $145 and tried to use it to gather and store her breast milk. It turned out to be so difficult, she gave up. She now works on her studies from home to be able to breastfeed her daughter.
Lim Buyheak formed a group with other mothers on the social media service Facebook in November. It now has about 160 members who discuss breastfeeding and support each other.
"At first, I felt a little bit shy," she said. "Now I feel very good to have support from my friends."
The formula industry is international and growing. In 2014, reports suggest formula sales reached about $44.8 billion worldwide. The World Health Organization expects that sales will have increased to $70.6 billion by the end of the year.
Activist groups say these sales are supported by marketing campaigns that are banned in some countries.
In July, Helen Keller International and World Vision International published a report on information found on containers of formula in Cambodia. The two non-governmental organizations said that 92 percent of formula containers had information on them that supported formula use or did not support breastfeeding. This, the groups said, violates the Cambodian government's policy to support infant breastfeeding.
7月，国际海伦·凯勒（Helen Keller）和世界宣明会（World Vision International）发表了一份关于柬埔寨配方奶粉容器信息的报告。 这两个非政府组织说，有92％的配方奶粉容器上有支持配方奶粉使用或不支持母乳喂养的信息。 这些团体说，这违反了柬埔寨政府支持婴儿母乳喂养的政策。
"These products are often marketed with misleading claims," said Mary Champeny, a nutrition researcher from Helen Keller International.
海伦·凯勒国际公司（Helen Keller International）的营养研究员玛丽·尚佩尼（Mary Champeny）说：“这些产品通常在市场上具有误导性的声称。
In 1981, the World Health Assembly agreed to an International Code of Marketing Breast-milk Substitutes. That agreement called on nations "to protect and promote breastfeeding." It also called for the supervision of marketing formula to mothers.
1981年，世界卫生大会通过了《国际销售母乳代用品守则》。 该协议呼吁各国“保护和促进母乳喂养”。 它还呼吁对母亲的营销方式进行监督。
Words in This Story：
facility - n. something such as a building or large piece of equipment that is built for a specific purpose
consume(s) – v. to eat or drink something
infant – n. a very young child
practice – n. the action of doing or using something
potential – n. an ability that someone has that can be developed to help that person become successful
shy – adj. feeling nervous and uncomfortable about meeting and talking to people
promote – v. to help something happen, develop, or increase